AGS Chap 1: The First Americans

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AGS U.S. History Chapter 1: The First Americans pg. 3-23

Archaeologist

one who studies the remains of past human life. pg. 3

Culture

the values, attitudes and customes of a group. pg. 3

Theory

a best guess pg. 3

Ice Age

a period of of time when much of the Earth's water was frozen pg. 3

Beringia

land bridge that linked Asia and North America during the last ice age pg. 3

Caribou

a large deer that lives in the arctic regions. pg. 3

Nomad

people who do not live in one place pg. 3

Clovis Point

a finely flaked stone spearhead pg. 4

Glacier

a large body of ice pg. 4

Mesoamerica

The area of land that includes what is not Mexico and other countries south through Costa Rica pg. 6

Civilization

a high level of cultural development pg. 6

Cultivate

To grow crops pg. 6

Settlement

A place or region newly settled pg. 6

Hieroglyphic

A system of writing that uses picture like symbols pg. 6

Astronomy

The study of space and the planets pg. 6

Architect

a person skilled in designing buildings pg. 6

Military

Having to do with armed forces pg. 8

Canal

A waterway made by humans. pg. 8

Artisan

A skilled worker pg. 8

Irrigation

A system of watering crops that uses canals or ditches of water. pg. 10

Ritual

An action that takes place during a ceremony pg. 10

Mesa

A flat-topped height pg. 10

Kiva

A large under ground room used for ceremonies pg. 10

Burial

The act of burying the dead. pg. 11

Dwelling

A Home pg. 11

Religious

Relating to the belief in a higher being pg. 11

Reservoir

A large place used to store water pg. 12

Descendant

One who comes from a group of people. pg. 12

Kachina

The spirit of an ancestor. pg. 12

Tobacco

A plant that some people smoke or chew. pg. 14

Meadowcroft Rock Shelter

Contains the earliest traces of human life
Located near Pittsburg, Pennsylvania

Olmecs

Established between 1200BC and AD 600 in Mexico
Carved jade and stone
Hieroglyphics

Mayans

Established in AD 250 in Belize
Masters of Astronomym Arithmetic, Architecture, Artists, Advanced form of writing

Toltecs

Established in AD 900 in the Mexican highlands
Built Temples in the city of Tula

Aztecs

Established in AD 1200
Ruled much of Mexico from their main city of Tenochititlan
Strong Military and Government
Built Roads, Canals, Bridges and Buildings

Incas

Established in AD 1200 in southern Peru
Studied Astronomy
Strong Builders, Lawmakers and Warriors

Hohokam

Established in 300BC
Weaved Cotton goods
Ruled villages by controlling canals

Mogollon

Established in 200BC
Built small villages of 20 houses on bluffs, mesas and other high ground

Chaco Canyon Anasazi

Established in AD 100
Called Cliff Dwellers

Mesa Verde Anasazi

Lived on the sides of high Mesas in the southwest.

Kayenta Anasazi

Lived in northeastern Arizona
Descendents of the Pueblos

Adena

Built burial mounds in the Ohio River Valley to honor their dead.

Hopewell

Decendents of the Adena
Serpent Mound is an example of a Hopewell Mound
Traded with settlements east of the Mississippi River

Mississippians

Lived in the Mississippi River Valley
Used plants for food
Built a large settlement called Moundville in Alabama in 1050.
Built a large mound at Cahokia, a major trade center of the Mississippi River
Decendents include the Cherokees who celebrate the Green Corn Ceremony

Plains Indians

Called Nomadic People but also lived in villages
The Hidatsa and Mandan tribes of North Dakota farmed, fished and hunted.

Pacific Northwest People

Civilizations began about AD 400
Depended on the Sea for food and trade

Inuit

lived north of the Pacific Northwest civilizations
Called Eskimos

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