the materials that makes up the solid parts of earth
type of rock that is produced by volcanic activity; rock that forms when magma cools and solidify.
molten rock from inside the earth; forms when rocks melt.
magma that is exposed at the earth's surface
rocks, mineral crystals, and organic matter that have been broken into fragments
type of rock that forms when the sediment deposits are compressed, cemented together, and harden.
lava exposed at earth's surface
igneous rocks form from--
natural processes that break down rocks into small fragments
sedimentary rocks form from--
change in pressure, heat, and chemical processes
metamorphic rocks form from--
the series of processes in which rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geological processes
physical and chemical properties
-- are determined by how and where the rocks are formed
remove specific elements from the magma, changes the magma's composition
when magma cools, certain minerals tend to crystallize first. as these minerals form, they ---, which ---.
the rate in which a rock weathers and the way the rock breaks apart is determined by the ---.
1. gradual formation of minerals that have similiar chemical compositions
2. sudden changes in the mineral type
2 ways a mineral is formed
--- reflect the chemical composition of the rock
ultramafic, mafic, intermediate, felsic, ultrafelsic
5 magma types
bowen's reaction series
the simplified pattern that illustrates the order in which minerals crystallize from cooling magma according to their chemical composition and melting point
chemical stability of minerals
a measure of the tendency of a chemical compound to maintain its original chemical composition rather than break down to form a different chemical.
physical stability of rocks
a measure of the weakness of a rock
spaced zones of weakness
determines a mineral's chemical composition
process by which different minerals in rock melt at different temperatures.
removes certain chemicals from magma and forms new minerals
highest freezing point
minerals with the --- crystallize first
the crystallization and removal of different minerals from the cooling magma
rocks composed of large mineral grains
rocks formed with small crystals
intrusive igneous rock
rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath earth's surface
rock that forms from the cooling and solidification of lava at earth's surface
texture of an igneous rock that has a mixture of large and small crystals (cools slowly at first but the cools rapidly)
texture of an igneous rock that forms from quickly cooling magma
a bunch of holes that are formed in rocks that result from a slowly cooling rock
texture of an igneous rock that forms from a slowly cooling rock
-- of an igneous rock is determined by the chemical composition
felsic, mafic, and intermediate
3 types of igneous rock
describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspar and silica and that is generally light in color
describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and that is generally dark in color
a type of component that gives mafic rocks a dark color
describes magma or igneous rock that contains lower proportions of silica than rocks in the felsic family but contain higher proportions of silica than rocks in the mafic family.
igneous rock masses that form underground (forms when magma intrudes into other rock masses and then cools deep inside earth's crust)
largest type of intrustion; means "deep rock"; spread over at least 100 km when exposed on earth's surface
when magma forms beneath rock layers and spreads upward and sometimes pushes the overlying rock layers into a dome. the base of the intrusion is parallel to the rock layer beneath it. word means "lake of rock"
-- forms when magma flows between the layers of rock and hardens. a -- lies parallel to the layers of rock that surround it.
forms when magma solidifies; -- cut across rock layers rather than lying parallel to the rock layers. commonly found in areas of volcanic activity.
a vent through which magma, gases, or volcanic ash is expelled.
the solidified central vent of a volcano
igneous rock masses that form on earth's surface
a series of lava flows that cover a vast area with thick rock
volcanic rock that forms when a volcano releases ash and other solid particles during an eruption
compaction and cementation
two main processes that convert loose sediment to sedimentary rock
the process in which the volume and porosity of a sediment is decreased by the weight of overlying sediments as a result of burial beneath other sediments
the process in which minerals precipitate into pore spaces between sediment grains and bind sediments together to form rock
the way rocks form and by the composition of the rocks
geologists classify sedimentary rocks by ---
chemical, organic, and clastic
the three main classes of sedimentary rocks
sedimentary rock that forms when minerals precipitate from a solution or settle from a suspension
organic sedimentary rock
sedimentary rock that forms from the remains of plants or animals
clastic sedimentary rock
sedimentary rock that forms when fragments of preexisting rocks are compacted or cemented together
rock that is composed of rounded fragments that range in size from 2 mm to boulders
a rock that's fragments are angular and have sharp corners
a group of clastic sedimentary rocks that are made up of sand-sized grains that have been cemented together
a group of clastic sedimentary rocks that consists of clay-sized particles that are cemented and compacted
the tendency for currents of air or water to separate sediments according to their size
the place or setting in which sediment is deposited
layering of sedimentary rock
beds that have no internal structures
sedimentary rocks that are characterized by slanting layers that form within beds
a type of stratification that occurs when various sizes and kinds of materials are deposited within one layer
a type of stratification in which the smallest grains are on the bottom and the largest grains are on top
one of a series of small ridges produced in sand by water currents or by wind
-- form when muddy deposits dry and shrink.
the remains or traces of ancient plants and animals (preserved in sedimentary rocks)
lumps of rock that have a composition that is different from that of the main rock body (form when minerals precipitate from fluids and build up around a nucleus)
minerals that crystallize inside cavities to form a --. (sedimentary)
the process in which one type of rock changes into metamorphic rock because of chemical processes or changes in temperature and pressure (forms deep within earth's crust)
contact metamorphism and regional metamorphism
two types of metamorphism that occurs in earth's crust
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with magma
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to changes in temperature and pressure over a large area, generally as a result of tectonic forces
foliated and nonfoliated rocks
2 classifications of metamorphic rocks
the metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands
the metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are no arranged in planes or bands
the metamorphosed rock that has bands of light and dark minerals