The electrical requirements for motherboards change over time as new technologies make additional demands for power.
MicroATX increases the total cost of a system by increases the number of expansion slots on the
When removing the motherboard, you'll find a main power line, and maybe one auxiliary power line from the power supply to the motherboard.
The easiest way to fix a power supply you suspect is faulty is to replace it.
The power supply and monitor contain enough power to give you a strong shock except when they are unplugged.
Generally when shopping for a motherboard for a gaming system, you'd need to pay attention to form factor, processor sockets, chipsets, buses and number of bus slots, and other connectors, slots, and ports.
Today's PCs have four or five buses, each with different speeds, access methods, and protocols.
PCIe is backward compatible.
The motherboard configuration stored in BIOS setup needs to be changed when a new floppy drive is installed.
Many brand-name computer manufacturers, such as IBM, Dell, and Gateway, use the same standard setup screens.
Most cases have one or more positions on the case to hold a case fan to help draw air out of the case.
Electronic devices are more likely to fail than fans.
An overheated system can cause intermittent problems or cause the system to reboot or refuse to boot.
Excessive heat can damage the CPU and the motherboard.
If you hear two beeps during the boot and you see a blank screen, then BIOS has successfully completed POST.
A simple problem of replacing a bad memory module can become a complex research project if you don't have a good grasp of current and past memory technologies.
Systems using RIMMs are still being made.
Mixing unbuffered memory with buffered or registered memory will work but is not recommended.
Most often, placing memory on the motherboard and updating the BIOS manually is all that is necessary for installation.
For most SIMMs, the module slides into the slot at an angle.
The first ATX power supplies and motherboards used a single power connector called the ____ connector that had 20 pins.
Motherboards that support PCI Express and have the 24-pin P1 connector are sometimes called ____ boards.
The ____ form factor is a major variation of ATX and addresses some technologies that have emerged since the original development of ATX.
The ____ form factor was designed by Intel in 2003 for flexibility and can be used by everything from large tower systems to those ultrasmall-systems that sit under a monitor.
A ____ case sits upright on the floor or a desk and can be as high as two feet and has room for several drives.
The ____ is a measure of resistance to electricity.
A ____ is an electronic device that can hold an electrical charge for a period of time and can smooth the uneven flow of electricity through a circuit.
A power ____ is a box inside a computer case that supplies power to the motherboard and other installed devices.
____ is running a processor, motherboard, or video card at a higher frequency than the manufacturer recommends and is not considered a best practice.
One ____ is the work or energy required to produce one watt of power in one second.
The ____ provides backup power in the event that the AC fails completely.
uninterruptable power supply
A(n) ____ is a general-purpose tool that can measure several characteristics of electricity in a variety of devices.
A ____ color or stripe down one side of a cable marks this side of the cable as pin 1.
Older hard drives use a(n) ____-conductor IDE ribbon cable.
A system might have up to ____ types of ribbon cables.
Some video cards use a(n) ____ that helps to hold the card securely in the slot.
For an older motherboard, instead of screws you'll see ____ that keep the board from resting directly on the bottom of the computer case.
A ____ of the house current might cause symptoms of electrical power problems.
A(n) ____ might solve the problem of intermittent errors caused by noise in the power line to the PC.
____ connections inside the computer case can cause a system to appear dead or reboot itself.
The motherboard, like all other components inside the computer case, should be ____ the chassis.
A ____ is the most complicated component in a computer.
The ____ and the chipset determine which processors a board can support.
Earlier Pentiums used a ____ socket, with pins aligned in uniform rows around the socket.
pin grid array
Later sockets used a ____, with pins staggered over the socket to squeeze more pins into a small space.
staggered pin grid array
The ____ have a lever that is used to lift the processor up and out of the socket.
zero insertion force sockets
The fast end of hub in the Intel i800 series chipsets, which contains the graphics and memory controller, connects to the system bus and is called the hub's ____.
The slower end of the hub in the Intel i800 chipsets, called the ____, contains the I/O controller hub.
Throughput is sometimes called ____.
____ buses have been improved several times; there are currently three major categories and within each category, several variations of the bus.
A(n) ____ boot involves turning on the power with the on/off switch.
At the beginning of the boot drive (usually drive C) is the OS ____ record.
For Windows XP, Ntldr is responsible for loading the OS, and is, therefore, called the ____.
boot loader program
The process of upgrading or refreshing the ROM BIOS chip is called ____ BIOS.
Some cases have ____, also called spacers, which are round plastic or metal pegs that separate the motherboard from the case, so that components on the back of the motherboard do not touch the case.
With any installation, remember the importance of using a ground strap (ground bracelet) to ground yourself when working inside a computer case to protect components against ____.
On the motherboard, the ____ controls power to the motherboard and must be connected for the PC to power up.
Sometimes documentation marks pin 1 as a ____ pin in the diagram, rather than round like the other pins.
The ____ menu in BIOS setup allows you to configure automatic power-saving features for your system, such as suspend mode or a sleep state.
Most likely when you first install a hard drive or an operating system, you will want to have the BIOS
attempt to first boot from a ____.
Access to a computer can be controlled using a ____ password.
The most reliable way to restore settings is to keep a written record of all the changes you make to ____.
Processor core frequency is measured in ____.
Memory on the processor die is called ____ cache.
Memory in the processor package, but not on the processor die, is called ____ cache.
Intel's ____ allows each logical processor within the processor package to handle an individual thread in parallel with other threads being handled by other processors within the package.
____ hold counters, data, instructions, and addresses that the ALU is currently processing.
Installing more than one processor on a motherboard creates a ____.
Intel's current families of processors for the desktop include four major groups: ____.
the Core, the Pentium, the Celeron, and the Atom families
Using the ____ technology, the Intel processor, chipset, and wireless network adapter are all interconnected as a unit, which improves laptop performance.
The cooler sits on top of the processor and consists of a fan and a heat ____, which are fins that draw heat away from the processor.
A ____ is a heat sink carrying an electrical charge that causes it to act as an electrical thermal transfer device.
The peltier's top surface can be as hot as ____ degrees F.
The peltier's bottom surface can be as cool as ____ degrees F.
The most popular method of cooling overclocked processors is a(n) ____.
liquid cooling system
The current set of standards that is used by BIOS, hardware, and the OS to manage power is ____.
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
If a power-on password has been forgotten, you can use the BIOS ____ to reset the password.
The CMOS battery failure can be reported by startup BIOS during the ____.
Processors can sense their operating temperatures and report that information to ____.
The temperature inside the case should not exceed ____ degrees C.
Intel and AMD both recommend a ____ air guide as part of the case design.
When you hear ____ during post, you know that a keyboard controller failed or video controller failed.
Three beeps followed by three, four, or five beeps
When you hear ____ during post, you know that you have a problem with serial or parallel ports or system timer, which probably means the motherboard must be replaced.
Four beeps followed by two, three, or four beeps
____ memory temporarily holds data and instructions as the CPU processes them.
RAM is divided into two categories, ____.
DRAM and SRAM
____ is used for a memory cache and is contained within the processor housing.
____ loses its data rapidly, and the memory controller must refresh it several thousand times a second.
RAM on motherboards today is stored on ____.
Laptops use a smaller version of a DIMM called a(n) ____.
A(n) ____ gets its name because it has independent pins on opposite sides of the module.
DIMMs intended to be used in servers must be extremely reliable and use an error-checking technology called ____.
If the number of bits is not an odd number for odd parity or an even number for even parity, a ____ error occurs.
A Rambus memory module is called a(n) ____.
SIMMs are rated by speed, measured in ____.
When Windows does not have adequate memory to perform an operation, it gives a(n) "____" error or it slows down to a painful crawl.
To upgrade memory means to add more ____ to a computer.
To use System Information, in the Vista Start Search box or the Windows XP Run box, type ____ and press Enter.
In the table found in the motherboard manual, a chip on a RIMM module is called a ____.
Higher-quality memory modules have ____ installed to reduce heat and help the module last longer.
If the chip's surface is dull or matted, or you can scratch off the markings with a fingernail or knife, suspect that the chip has been ____.
For ____ modules, small clips latch into place on each side of the slot to hold the module in the slot.
For RIMM modules, install the RIMMs beginning with bank ____.
When installing the RIMM, ____ on the edge of the RIMM module will help you orient it correctly in the socket.
In Windows, memory errors can cause frequent ____ errors.
General Protection Fault
The standards that describe the size, shape, and major features of components so that they work together
Can have up to seven expansion slots
Has up to four expansion slots
None or one expansion slot
Used in low-end systems with a riser card
The most commonly used form factor today
A measure of electrical "pressure" differential
A measure of electrical current
A measure of electrical power
Has 1366 pins that touch pads on the processor
LGA1366 or Socket B
Has 771 pins that touch pads on the processor
LGA771 or Socket J
Has 775 lands or pads
LGA775 or Socket T
Uses a dense micro PGA (mPGA)
Has a 39 x 39 SPGA grid
Key(s) to press during the boot process to access the AMI BIOS
Key(s) to press during the boot process to access the Newer Phoenix BIOS
F2 or F1
Key(s) to press during the boot process to access the Dell computers using Phoenix BIOS
The order in which the system tries to boot from certain devices
Small holding areas on the processor chip that work much as RAM does outside the processor
The portion of the internal bus that connects the processor to the internal memory cache
The speed at which the processor operates internally
Running a motherboard or processor at a higher speed than the manufacturer suggests
RAM that holds data and instructions that the memory controller anticipates the processor will need next
Groups of instructions that accomplish fundamental operations
Save power by lowering the CPU frequency and voltage
Used by the processor to stop its internal operations to conserve power
Items that can be exchanged without returning the motherboard to the factory
field replaceable units
Holds its data as long as the RAM has power
Loses its data rapidly
Used on laptops
Used on subnotebook computers
Currently the fastest memory and can support triple or dual channels or be installed as a single DIMM
240-pin DDR3 DIMM
Has two notches on the module
168-pin SDRAM DIMM
Must be installed two modules to a bank of memory
Must be installed four modules to a bank of memory
Have been used, returned to the factory, marked again, and then resold