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Professions draw upon a specialized body of knowledge based primarily on which one of the following?

Theory developed through research

Many public relations leaders have argued that public relations should act as the ______ of their organization.

Ethical conscience

Although all of the following apply, which one is the primary purpose for establishing professional codes of ethics and standards of performance?

Protect the clients

The "fiduciary relationship" differentiates professionals from other skilled practitioners. Which one of the following best represents the nature of a fiduciary relationship?

Professionals hold the client and the client's possessions in trust and are obligated to act in the client's best interest

Codes of ethics for public relations practitioners have little impact unless they are accepted and applied by their employers. Which one of the following practices is NOT used by PR firms to encourage ethical practice among their employees

Requiring all new employees to be accredited in public relations (APR)

Which of the following professional values from the PRSA Code of Ethics requires practitioners to "adhere to the highest standards of accuracy and truth . . . in communicating with the public"?


Which of the following core principles from the PRSA Code of Ethics requires practitioners to "be honest and accurate in all communications"?

Disclosure of information

Edward Bernays for decades pointed to the absence of which of the following as a major factor keeping public relations from being recognized as a profession?


According to Bernays and other advocates, licensing practitioners is necessary to preserve the well-being of society by doing which of the following?

Exclude those not properly qualified

Opponents of licensing for practitioners raise what Constitutional issue(s) as the major obstacle(s) to state licensing in the United States?

Compelling state interest and freedom of expression

Discuss the relationship between professional privilege and social responsibility.

Professional privilege is provided because professionals do work seen as especially valuable to society. This work requires public trust and confidence and involves valuable knowledge and essential skills applied for the public good. Professional privilege rests upon an implicit agreement among the profession, the public, and the state, obligating professionals to fulfill that contract and to uphold moral obligations for the welfare of society. Thus, professionals have a social responsibility to improve institutions administering professional services, to be concerned with the consequences of their services, and to be judged based on their impact on society. Professional privilege is then a result of honoring that social responsibility.

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