people who specialize in studying humanities: grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric.
art technique that involves making distant objects smaller than those in the foreground and arranging them to create the illusion of depth on a flat canvas.
first European to use movable type to print books.
-used printing press to print copies of the Bible.
Dutch scholar who lived from about 1466-1556.
-left monastery to his stuidies of the classics.
-interested in: early Christian period as well as early Greek and Roman culture.
-believed ideas of Christianity and of classical civilization could be harmonized.
-criticized the church's lack of spirituality.
-famous book: The Praise of Folly (ridiculed superstition and ignorance).
paid pardons from punishment for sin.
monk, entered and stayed in monestary.
-taught: ceremonies/good deeds made no difference in saving a sinner.
-taught: recieved salvation thorough th grace of God.
-1517: posted 95 theses on the door of the Wittenburg church. (argued against indulgences & church practices.
French philosopher, follower of Zwingli.
-believed in predestination.
government ruled by religion leaders claiming God's authority,
Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius de Loyola in 1534.
removal of magic from nature
playright and poet
wrote plays that tended focus on humans, rather than godly actions.
Edict of Nantes
proclomations(by Kind Henry IV 1548) gave the Huguenots freedom of worship & some political rights,
Council of Trent
meeting of the church leaders in the 1500s to early defined Catholic doctrines for the Counter Reformation.
-published most famous book of the Middle Ages: The Book of Courtier. Setting: Urbino. About: how people should act in society.
-painted on Sistine Chapel ceiling, sculpted biblical figures.
-wrote poetry, helped design St. Peter's Basilica.
-painter: painted the Assumption of the Virgin.
-Holy Roman Emperor was a patron.
-one of first painters to become rich.
early realist painter.
-published Utopia (ideal society).
-executed by King Henry VIII of England because More didnt agree that he king was the supreme head of the church.
study of ancient Greek and Roman literature.
group of painters who perfected the technique of oil painting on canvas.