Size of skin
2square meters, weighing 10lbs, is 1.5mm - 4mm thick
Functions of Hypodermis
Fat and nutrient storage, insulation, shock absorption, binds skin to muscles
String like fibrous protein protecting and providing structure to the skin. Makes up fingernails, hair, and surface layer of skin.
Spidery shaped cells that produce melanin. Located in basale layer
Come from bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. They are macrophages, cells from the immune system, and activate immune responses by alerting the immune system when a foreign body lands on/enters the skin.
Associated with a nerve ending, creating a merkel disc, which is a light touch receptor.
Deepest epidermal layer. Connects to the dermis via a basement membrane by the hemidesmosomes. Most cells in basale are mitotic. Houses melanocytes and merkel cells.
Several thick layers in the epidermis containing keratin filaments, Langerhans cells, and desmosomes holding the cells together.
Thin layer of the epidermis, starting to flatten and die. Nucleus and organelles disintegrate because there is no blood supply. Contains a lot of hard keratin and granules.
Contain water proofing waxy glycolipids, coating surface layers of the cells.
Removal if dead skin cells
Present only in thick skin like the palms and soles; a few rows of dead keratin cells.
Multiple layers of dead keratinocytes; little bags of keratin. Resistant to abrasion, penetration, and water. Thickness varies based on location in the body.
Superficial layer of the dermis; made of loose collagen and elastin, right below the surface membrane; very vascular.
bumps sticking up on skin, contains capillary loops, free/bare nerve endings of neurons, and Meissner's corpuscles
Sensory receptors to touch. Dermal ridges indent ridges into epidermis (fingerprints) are made of dermal papillae, helping with gripping.
Deep layer of dermis. Accounts for most of the dermis thickness. Contains sweat and oil glands, hair follicles, and sensory receptors.
Senses deep/hard pressure deep in the dermis.
Dermal folds occurring near joints of places where skin is frequently bent and had distinct lines, like the inside of the elbow.
Break within the epidermal layer only
Separation from the epidermis to the dermis, filling with fluid.
Blue skin, hemoglobin is poorly oxygenated. Sign of MI (heart attack), or a respiratory disorder.
Redness of skin resulting from engorgement of dermal capillaries. Sign of fever, hypertension, inflammation, or allergies.
Pale skin. Sign of anemia (decrease in RBC). These cells are oxygenated, just not sufficiently. Or a sign of hypotension, or cold temperature.
Yellowing of the skin indicated a liver or gall bladder problem
Breakdown product of hemoglobin. Liver removes this from the body and incorporates it into the bile, which is stored in the gallbladder.
Look like "ball of spaghetti sliced in half". Contains Eccrine and Apocrine glands
Produces sweat when exercising/body gets hot. More numerous; found on palm of hand, sole of feet, and forehead. Located in the dermis; has a duct that extends from the surface to the core. Composed of 99% water, but also made of salt, vitamins, microbial substances, wastes (urea), and lactic acid, which may attract mosquitos. Purpose is to prevent overheating and to regulate body temperature.
Not enough salt, too much water
Found in armpits and genital areas, larger glands than eccrine. The tubes/ducts empty into hair follicles. Contain more lipids and proteins; liquid is thicker than eccrine. Initially it is odorless, then when bacteria break it down it smells. These glands start functioning at puberty; functions in sexual attraction.
More compact than sweat glands, produce sebum, empty into hair follicles. Not present in palms or soles. Very abundant in the face, neck, and upper chest. Contains microbial properties.
Arrector pili muscle
Which causes hair to stand up and simple skin, creating goose bumps.
Male pattern baldness
Follicle cycles are too short. It is genetically inherited from mother's father.
Blocks testosterone production to stop male pattern baldness.
Six function of the integument system
Protection, thermo-regulation, metabolic, sensation, blood reservoir, and excretion.
Bright red discolored birth mark. Caused by abnormally dense accumulation of blood vessels in dermis of the skin. Most often on face and neck. They tend to darken over time. Unknown cause; happens early in fetal development. Laser treatment, not life threatening.
Red flushing of the skin due to dilation of the blood vessels in the skin. Typical on the face. Tends to flare up then go down (cyclical). Begins later in life, ages 30-50 (middle age). Treatment: avoid triggering factors, topical medication
Large bulbous bumpy nose caused by untreated rosacea. Red color comes from more blood (hemoglobin cells) in the area.
Bright red blood vessels in the skin that get bumpy;caused by rosacea
Scaly, flaky, silver/whitish patches on the skin (dead skin building on the surface). Commonly seen on the trunk, elbows, knees, and scalp. Very common. Can be just one patch or widely spread. Cyclical flare ups; usually first displays during ages 15 - 35. Cells are being produced faster than being removed. Autoimmune.
Extremely rare condition; an extreme form of psoriasis. "Fish scale disease". Different types exist; genetic. Hyperkeratinized epidermis Stratum Corneum is way thicker than it should be. Variable degrees, from minor to extreme
Born with very thick plates on surface of its skin. The thick layer is called collodion membrane. They have too much skin; because the skin is so thick, the body can't accommodate so it stretches too much and cracks. The membrane will often peel off in first few weeks of life
flipping of the eyelids
flipping of the lips
Keratohylaline granules and filaggrin
bind keratin cells together
Mild form, scaly patches only on elbows and legs, common, could be confused with psoriasis. Defect in keratohyaline granules - skin doesn't hydrate properly, making it difficult to exfoliate. Cyclical, not life threatening.
Severe form. Victims lack lamellar granules, meaning you don't have water proofing glycolipids. As a result, skin is signaled to produce more cells because they think that there is a defect because the skin is not waterproof. However, you also don't have protease enzymes, so the extra cells can't be removed.
Very rare. Can't go out in sunlight. They have an inability to fix DNA damage due to UV rays. Very susceptible to skin cancer.Genes producing DNA repair proteins also do not work correctly. Most of us can repair the DNA if damage occurs, but they can't.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Cancer is formed in the basale layer of the epidermis. Least malignant form of skin cancer - not likely to spread, unless left untreated. Most common form of skin cancer, 75% of skin cancers. Cells usually move up through the epidermis, forming a bump, usually on the face. When the cells move down into the dermis, it can metastasize by traveling through the blood stream, which is very bad.
Squamous cell carcinoma
Occurs in stratum spinosum. Looks like a scaly, reddened elevation of the skin. Occurs most often on the head, face, and hands (the areas most exposed to the sun). May bleed a little.
Brownish irregular spot on the skin, formed in the melanocytes in stratum basale layer. Most dangerous type because it spreads quickly and is resistant to treatment. Of the skin diseases, it is the leading cause of death. #1 cause of cancer death is women ages 25 - 30. Very rare; only 5% of skin cancers.
1st threat of burns. If you lose too much fluid, your blood volume decreases, kidney function decreases, leading to circulatory shock. Give victim lots of calories and proteins to rebuild and heal the tissues (usually through an IV or gastric tube).
2nd threat of burns. Broken external barrier that prevents bacteria and pathogens from entering. Burnt skin is initially sterile, for the 24hrs. After that, bacteria start to grow.
3rd threat of burns. This system is compromised.
1st degree burn
Located in epidermis. Redness, swelling, pain because of increased blood flow to the epidermis to heal it. Healed within a few days.
2nd degree burn
located in all of the epidermis, some of the dermis. Blistering filled with fluid. Usually healed on it's own within a few weeks, but you should watch for the blisters popping because it could get infected.
3rd degree burn
Located in entire epidermis and the dermis, could also damage the underlying bone or the muscle. Very severe. Extensive blistering, red and white, lots of scarring. No initial pain because the nerve ending s have been destroyed. Pain increases with time. Could take months to heal.
If it is 2nd degree and covers > 25%, 3rd degree and covers > 10%, or the 3rd degree burn is on the face (could prevent breathing) or the hands or feet (affect long term mobility)