Psychology is marked by diversity and divisiveness. The one aspect of the discipline that provides cohesiveness and a common ground for discourse is its what?
An "autobiography" of Jung was evidently written not by Jung, but by an assistant who what?
altered and/or deleted some of Jung's writings to represent him in a manager suiting his family and followers
Freud's idea "Einfall" was translated into English into what term which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German?
The viewpoint that whatever discovery was about to happen, Freud would discover it would be an argument in favor of which theory?
In the 1970's, the publication of the research of John Garcia was significantly delayed because why?
his findings challenged the prevailing view in stimulus-response (S-R) theory
In Kuhn's philosophy of science, when Einstein's theory of relativity replaced Galiean-Newtonian physics, a(n) what occurred?
The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is what?
The theories of mechanism that invoke the movement of atoms to explain the universe were developed by who?
Newton and Galileo
The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas) is what?
Seventeenth century philosophers and scientists argued that like clocks and the universe, ____ are regular, predictable, observable and measurable.
The first successful demonstration of artificial intelligence was what?
Babbage's calculating machine
The pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience is what?
Before Descartes, the accepted point of view was that the interaction between mind and body was essentially unidirectional, that
the mind influenced the body
A fundamental difference between Descartes's psychology and that of Locke was their position about the existence of what?
Berkeley's basic difference with Locke was Berkeley's argument that what?
there are no primary qualities
Hume's response to Locke's and Berkeley's arguments about objective versus subjective reality was that what?
we have no real way of knowing
Hartley argued that the human brain and nervous system transmitted impulses with what?
This person, the most radically mechanistic of the British empiricists, claimed that the mind is a machine and that there is no freedom of the will, believing instead that the mind is totally a passive entity and all thought can be analyzed in terms of sensations.
Bessel began the study of individual differences in perception by noting what?
that astronomers differed in their time estimates in measuring the transit of a star
____ was a pioneer in research on reflex behavior showing that reflexes could occur in the absence of brain involvement.
____'s phrenology proposed that the topography of a person's skull revealed his of her intellectual and emotional characteristics.
The representation of the nervous system as a complex switching system reveals the 19th-century reliance on what?
The method of logic that characterizes psychology and that was favored in Germany of the 19th century was what?
In the 19th century, the British and French defined science as including what?
physics anc chemistry only
According to Fechner, the effects of stimulus intensities are not ____ but are ____ to the amount of sensation that already exists.
The scientific study of the relations between mental and physical processes is a definition of what?
In Fechner's Law as one variable increases arithmetically, the other variable increases what?
In modern medicine, the cause of a person's dementia typically cannot be determined until autopsy. Thus, ____ research method continues to be of significance in medicine and psychology.
Wundt's focus was on ____, whereas Titchener's was on ____.
synthesis of elements; analysis of elements
One of the main reasons that Titchener's thought was believed to closely parallel that of Wundt was that Titchener did what?
translated Wundt's books from German to English
One of Titchener's most profound influences on the development of experimentation in psychology was what publication?
Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice (1901-1905)
Titchener excluded women from the meetings of the Titchener Experimentalists because women were what?
too pure to smoke
Titchener's definition of the appropriate subject matter of psychology is what?
Titchener opposed the development of areas such as child psychology and animal psychology because why?
these areas did not focus on discovering the structures of mind
The sum of our experiences as they exist at a particular moment is Titchener's definition of what?
While Wundt emphasized ____ and ____ reports during introspection, Titchener used ____ and ____ introspective reports.
objective; quantitative; subjective; qualitative