Test 1 - History and Systems of Psych

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In what year did the journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences begin publication?

1965

Psychology is marked by diversity and divisiveness. The one aspect of the discipline that provides cohesiveness and a common ground for discourse is its what?

history

The hallmark of psychology's separation from philosophy was its reliance on what?

experimentation

An "autobiography" of Jung was evidently written not by Jung, but by an assistant who what?

altered and/or deleted some of Jung's writings to represent him in a manager suiting his family and followers

Freud's idea "Einfall" was translated into English into what term which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German?

free association

The first African American presend of the APA was what?

Kenneth Clark

The viewpoint that whatever discovery was about to happen, Freud would discover it would be an argument in favor of which theory?

personalistic

In the 1970's, the publication of the research of John Garcia was significantly delayed because why?

his findings challenged the prevailing view in stimulus-response (S-R) theory

In Kuhn's philosophy of science, when Einstein's theory of relativity replaced Galiean-Newtonian physics, a(n) what occurred?

scientific revolution

The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is what?

mechanism

The Zeitgeist of the 17th to 19th century Europe was marked by what?

mechanism (b)

The theories of mechanism that invoke the movement of atoms to explain the universe were developed by who?

Newton and Galileo

What invention was considered the perfect metaphor for the "spirit of mechanism"?

clock

The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas) is what?

reductionism

Seventeenth century philosophers and scientists argued that like clocks and the universe, ____ are regular, predictable, observable and measurable.

human beings

The first successful demonstration of artificial intelligence was what?

Babbage's calculating machine

The pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience is what?

empiricism

Empiricism attributes all knowledge to what?

experience

Who can be said to have inaugurated the era of modern psychology?

Descartes

Before Descartes, the accepted point of view was that the interaction between mind and body was essentially unidirectional, that

the mind influenced the body

Both the term and concept of positivism represent the thought of who?

Comte

The belief that all things can be described in physical terms.

materialism

A fundamental difference between Descartes's psychology and that of Locke was their position about the existence of what?

innate ideas

According to Locke, simple ideas become complex ideas through the process of what?

reflection

Berkeley's basic difference with Locke was Berkeley's argument that what?

there are no primary qualities

Hume's response to Locke's and Berkeley's arguments about objective versus subjective reality was that what?

we have no real way of knowing

Association in time or space defines what?

Hume's law of contiguity

Hartley argued that the human brain and nervous system transmitted impulses with what?

nerve vibrations

This person, the most radically mechanistic of the British empiricists, claimed that the mind is a machine and that there is no freedom of the will, believing instead that the mind is totally a passive entity and all thought can be analyzed in terms of sensations.

James Mill

David Kinnebrook was fired because why?

his observations differed from the observations of his boss

Bessel began the study of individual differences in perception by noting what?

that astronomers differed in their time estimates in measuring the transit of a star

Until the work of ____, experimentation was not the preferred method in physiology.

J. Muller

____ was a pioneer in research on reflex behavior showing that reflexes could occur in the absence of brain involvement.

Hall

____'s phrenology proposed that the topography of a person's skull revealed his of her intellectual and emotional characteristics.

Gall

The representation of the nervous system as a complex switching system reveals the 19th-century reliance on what?

mechanism (C)

The method of logic that characterizes psychology and that was favored in Germany of the 19th century was what?

inductive

In the 19th century, the British and French defined science as including what?

physics anc chemistry only

One of Helmholtz's particular contributions to psychology was his work on what?

vision

Who developed both the two-point threshold and the concept of the just noticeable difference?

Weber

According to Fechner, the effects of stimulus intensities are not ____ but are ____ to the amount of sensation that already exists.

absolute; relative

The scientific study of the relations between mental and physical processes is a definition of what?

psychophysics

In Fechner's Law as one variable increases arithmetically, the other variable increases what?

geometrically

In modern medicine, the cause of a person's dementia typically cannot be determined until autopsy. Thus, ____ research method continues to be of significance in medicine and psychology.

Broca's

Although he did not develop the theory called phrenology, ____ served as its popularizer.

Spurzheim

The school of structuralism includes the work and/or systems of who?

both Wundt and Titchener

Wundt's focus was on ____, whereas Titchener's was on ____.

synthesis of elements; analysis of elements

Titchener spent most of his career where?

Cornell University

One of the main reasons that Titchener's thought was believed to closely parallel that of Wundt was that Titchener did what?

translated Wundt's books from German to English

One of Titchener's most profound influences on the development of experimentation in psychology was what publication?

Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice (1901-1905)

Titchener excluded women from the meetings of the Titchener Experimentalists because women were what?

too pure to smoke

What percentage of Titchener's doctorates was given to women?

more than 1/3

Titchener's definition of the appropriate subject matter of psychology is what?

conscious experience

Titchener opposed the development of areas such as child psychology and animal psychology because why?

these areas did not focus on discovering the structures of mind

The sum of our experiences as they exist at a particular moment is Titchener's definition of what?

consciousness

The sum of our experiences accumulated over a lifetime is Titchener's definition of what?

mind

Titchener's introspection method was most like ____ method.

Kulpe's

While Wundt emphasized ____ and ____ reports during introspection, Titchener used ____ and ____ introspective reports.

objective; quantitative; subjective; qualitative

By 1896, Titchener had identified approximately how many elements of sensation?

more than 44,000

When Titchener died, the era of structuralism did what?

died with him

Because some time elapsed between the experience and the reporting of it, critics charged that introspection was really a form of _________.

retrospection

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