Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped for an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis' surrender in 1781.
Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence.
British Prime Minister Architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act arguing that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament
Baron Von Steuben
Prussian soldier who helped train American forces at Valley Forge in the American Revolutionary War.
Colonial boycott of the importation of British products.
a group's refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies
British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts. Trials in Admiralty Courts were heard by judges without a jury.
Committees of Correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. Used to gather support against Parliament.
government official, close to the king, likeable, "Champagne Charlie", sponsored taxes for: lead, glass, paper, paint & tea,
Frenchman, Fought in Valley Forge, came to America to support the revolution
A free black man who was the first person killed in the Revolution at the Boston Massacre.
an economic theory that states that colonies should benefit the mother country
revenues levied directly on property (such as land or livestock), persons (such as poll taxes), or governmental functions (such as the Stamp Act).
Tax put on goods that are imported
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.
King George III
• King George III, the king of England from 1760 to 1820, exercised a greater hand in the government of the American colonies than had many of his predecessors. Colonists were torn between loyalty to the king and resistance to acts carried out in his name. After King George III rejected the Olive Branch Petition, the colonists came to see him as a tyrant.
Samuel Adams played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty and suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence. Adams was crucial in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New England and is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party..
British right to nullify any legislation passed by the colonial system if it went against Mercantalism
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
Paper currency authorized by Congress to finance the Revolution, depreciated to near worthlessness
Military commander of the American Revolution. He was the first elected president of the United States (1789-1799)
George Rogers Clark
Leader of a small Patriot force that captured British-controlled Fort Vincennes in the Ohio Valley in 1779., secured the Northwest Territory for America
Richard Henry Lee
a member of the Philadelphia Congress during the late 1770's. On June 7, 1776 he declared, "These United colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states." This resolution was the start of the Declaration of Independence and end to British relations.
He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. Key victories- upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army.
A prominent statesman, Thomas Jefferson became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government, 3rd president.
foreign soldiers who fought for money- Hessians fought for England in Revolution
Second Continental Congress
1776-They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
Barry St. Leger
Led British Army, Tried to take Fort Stanwix but American Benedict Arnold drove him back
the French Naval commander who defeated the British fleet at the battle of Yorktown, preventing Cornwallis from retreating by sea.
patriot general who forced the British out of Georgia & the Carolinas up to VA where Battle of Yorktown occurred
British commander who surrendered at Yorktown
John Paul Jones
The commander of one of America's ships; daring, hard-fighting young Scotsman; helped to destroy British merchant ships in 1777; brought war into the water of the British seas.
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
English General who commanded the English forces at Bunker Hill. Howe did not relish the rigors of winter campaigning, and he found more agreeable the bedtime company of his mistress. At a time when it seemed obvious that he should join the forces in New York, he joined the main British army for an attack on Philadelphia.
antifederalist, Outspoken member of House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with "Give me liberty or give me death" speech
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809), wrote Common Sense
French general who commanded French troops in the American Revolution, notably at Yorktown (1725-1807)
British general in the American Revolution who captured Fort Ticonderoga but lost the battle of Saratoga in 1777 (1722-1792)
a system in the colonial era by which privately-owned and operated vessels were used to raid enemy shipping
John Adam's wife, she appealed to her husband to protect the rights of women
Head of Shay's Rebellion; he and several other angry farmers violently protested against debtor's jail; eventually crushed; aided in the creation of constitution because land owners now wanted to preserve what was theirs from "mobocracy"
a principle which states that all government power comes from the people
the idea that governments should be based on the consent of the people
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
Constitution of the U.S.
the supreme law of the United States. The Constitution is the framework for the organization of the United States government and for the relationship of the federal government with the states, citizens, and all people within the United States.
opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independant states
Bundle of Compromises
This referred to the fact that the Constitution was trying to please everybody. (Great Compromise; 3/5 compromise; method of electing president; regulation of slave trade)
Large State Plan (Virginia Plan)
Plan proposed by Virginia for representation in both houses should be based on population
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt, leader of the Federalist party
right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son
the act of constituting a political unity out of a number of separate states or colonies or provinces so that each member retains the management of its internal affairs
Consent of the Governed
the idea that government derives its authority by the sanction of the people
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Society of the Cincinnati
Group of Continental Army officers formed a military order in1783. They were criticized for their aristocratic ideals.
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
Land Ordinance of 1785
Divided NW Territory into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers- 36 sections/ township, money from the 16th section went to public education
the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution,crested Bill of Rights from Mass. State Constitution
Lawless control of public affairs by the mob or populace.
a joining of several groups for a common purpose
a state of lawlessness and disorder (usually resulting from a failure of government)
supporters of the stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the new constitution, led by A. Hamilton
American general who defeated the Native Americans at the Battle of Fallen Timbers
Convention of 1800
Agreement which freed America from its alliance with France, forgave French $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams' losing a second term as president
pertaining to farmers and agriculture
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Treaty of Greenville
Gave America all of Ohio after General Mad Anthony Wayne battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions
way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take, Dem.-Rep. view
Bank of the United States
1st bank established 1791 as part of the system proposed by Hamilton to launch the new government on a sound economic basis-opposed by Jefferson-implied power
United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)
Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley-didn't achieve goal of stopping Eng. impressment of American ships
French government representative asking for assistance for the French Revolution. Sparked support for the French Revolution and led to the creation of the Democratic-Republican party
one of nations first political parties, led by Thomas Jeffrson and stemming from the anti-federalists, emerged around 1792, gradually became today's Democratic party. The Jeffersonian republicans were pro-French, liberal, and mostly made up of the middle class. They favored a weak central govt., and strong states's rights.
agreement between the united states and spain that changed floridas border and made it easier for american ships to use the port of new orleans- because French fear Eng.-Am. alliance after Jay's Treaty
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
a 1797 French attempt to bribe the United States by demanding money before discussing French seizure of neutral American ships with Talleyrand
French foreign minister in the X, Y, Z affair
In 1775 George Washington ordered him, the nation's first secretary of war, to bring the British artillery back to the siege of Boston that was captured at Fort Ticonderoga.
Judiciary Act of 1789
it organized the Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and five associate justices
a government tax on imports or exports
Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade
1532-Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima--> Spain rich from NW silver-->500% inflation
Juan Ponce de Leon
Spanish Explorer who discovered and named Florida while searching for the "Fountian of Youth"
Spanish conquerors in search of God and glory
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
Powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Cortés
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Lord de la Warr
New governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610, immediately imposing a military regime in Jamestown and declaring war against the Powhatan Confederacy. Employed "Irish tactics" in which his troops burned houses and cornfields.
Indian chief and founder of the Powhatan confederacy of tribes in eastern Virginia- father of Pocahontas
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
Someone with an exclusive right to a property
Jamestown winter of 1609 - 1610; people starved because there wasn't much food
Joint-Stock Company in London that received a charter for land in the new world. Charter guarantees new colonists same rights as people back in England.
Received a charter from Queen Elizabeth I to explore the American coastline. His ships landed on Roanoke, which became a "lost colony." Was 1st American colony
founder of Georgia in 1733; soldier, statesman , philanthropist. Started Georgia as a haven for people in debt because of his intrest in prison reform. Almost single-handedly kept Georgia afloat.
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
laws that controlled the lives of enslaved African Americans and denied them basic rights
An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England. (488)
religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
English clergyman and colonist who was expelled from Massachusetts for criticizing Puritanism, founded Rhode Island for all religions (the "Sewer Colony")
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life (whether going to heaven or hell)
Criticized the Church of England, fled to Massachusetts Bay Colony, defended government's duty to enforce religious rules
believed in predestination, that God was all knowing and it became the dominant theological credo of the Puritans
sub-group of the Puritans who vowed to break completely with the Church of England
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticutt
Adopted plan of democratic government for Connecticutt. First written constitution.
The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the 'protesters' forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England
Sir Edmund Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England
New England Confederation
1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
Dominion of New England
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros, enf. Nav. laws
big feudal estates granted to promoters who would settle 50 people on them
the name for the people who are the ones who God has chosen to save in predestination. This is the belief of the Calvinism religion and that only these people can be saved and ordinary people cannot earn salvation. This belief was started by John Calvin in 1536.
English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony in 1620
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
a Governor of Virginia, appointed by King Charles I, of whom he was a favorite. He was governor from 1641-1652 and 1660-1677. Berkeley enacted friendly policies towards the Indians that led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.
a planter who led a rebellion with one thousand other Virginians in 1676; the rebels were mostly frontiersmen forced toward the backcountry in search of fertile land
an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)
Set up University of Penn.-first nonden. college in US. Wrote "Poor Richard's Almanac" to give advice to Americans. Later was a member of Cont. Cong. and helped write Constitution
In Letters of an American Farmer, he praised life in America and, for the first time, explained what it meant to be an American- American "new breed of people"
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians --> regulator movement
One of the preachers of the great awakening (key figure of "New Light"); known for his talented voice inflection and ability to bring many a person to their knees.
John Peter Zenger
Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.
(1764-1771) Uprising in North Carolina, lower class citizens took up arms against corrupt colonial officials who took advantage of the system.
Old Lights/ New Lights
The "New Lights" were new religious movements formed during the Great Awakening and broke away from the congregational church in New England. The "Old Lights" were the established congregational church.
A British law passed in 1773 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade by bribing and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws led to revolution.
It was a revival of religious importance in the 17th century. It undermined older clergy, created schisms, increased compositeness of churches, and encouraged missionary work, led to the founding new schools. It was first spontaneous movement of the American people (broke sectional boundaries and denominational lines).
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa