Chemisty Chapter 14-1

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What is the process of dissolving a solute into a solvent

dissolution

Is it possible to speed up the process

yes

What is the surface area

how much of the solute is exposed to the solvent

Why is surface area important in speeding up dissolution

diissolution occurs at the surface of the solute, more divided the solute is, the the greater surface area it has so it dissolves quicker

Smaller pieces have more contact with the solvent which equals

dissolves faster

What is agitation

stirring and shaking a solution

Why does agitation increase dissolution

the solute particles are more evenly dispersed in the solution, fresh solute into contact with solvent

As the temperature increases, what increases

the rate of dissolution

Why does rate of dissolution increase with temp?

the particles are moving faster with a higher KE, so the solute particles will collide more with the solvent particles

Does heating always increase dissolution?

no

Why do some solids have a decreased dissolution when heated

Most solids are endothermic and require heat, but some solids are exothermic and have to remove heat

What three things does solubility depend on

solute, solvent, and temperature

At every combination of a solute and solvent at a certain temp, there is a what

certain amount of solute that can dissolve

As some particles dissolve , some will hit the surface of the crystal and what

reattach

What two processes will be at equal

recrystallization and dissolution

What is solution equilibrium

state in which opposing processes of dissolution and recrystallization occur at equal rates, dynamic

What is a saturated solution

solution that contains maximum amount of dissolved solute

What would happen to a saturated solution is more solute was added

the solute would not dissolve and fall to the bottom

What is a unsaturated solution

solution that contains less than the maximum amount of solute

What is a supersaturated solution

solution that contains more than max amount of solute

How can a supersaturated solution be created

heated up and dissolving as much solute as possible, must allow to cool undisturbed

What happens if a crystal touches a supersaturated solution

it will instantly crystalize

What type of substances can crystallize

pure

What type of seperation technique is used with crystallization

filteration

What is a solubility value

amount of substance required to make a saturated solution

What is a satured solution given in

g per 100 ml of water

What is nonpolar

no charges, cant be ionic, usually CH

What is polar

ionic, OH, partial charges

What is like dissolves like

helps to tell if two substances dissolve one another, polar dissolves polar, nonpolar with nonpolar

What does the like dissolves like rule include

types of bonding and types of intermolecular forces

Why is polar good at dissolving

it has partial charges so it attracts better

What is hydration

charged ends of the water molecules attract ions in an ionic compound

What do the water ions do

they surround the ions and keep them away from other ions

What happens when the water ions pull the ions away from the crystal

more ions are exposed, the ions will all be dispersed in the solution

What are hydrates

ionic compounds that automatically incorporatie water molecules into their structure when they crystallize

What do each hydrate have

specific number of water molecules attatched

What happens when you crush up a hyrdate and heat it

the water will evaporate, and the crystal of the ionic compound will be left

What are examples of nonpolar molecular compounds

carbon tetrachloride, oils and fats, tomene

What do nonpolar solvents not dissolve

ionic compounds

Why cants nonpolar molecular not dissolve ionic compounds

they dont have a strong enough attraction to the ions to pull them apart

What is miscible

liquids that mix well in any proportion

What is a example miscible

hexane and carbon tetrachloride- both nonpolar and dont have strong intermolecular forces

What is immiscible

two liquids that dont mix well together;

What is an ex of immiscible

hexane and water; hexane is nonpolar and water is polar, hexane cant pull water particles apart

Does pressure have a big or little effect on the solubility of liquids and solids

little

If the pressure increases, what happens

the solubility of gases in liquids increases

When pressure is increased, what happens with the gas molecules

more gas will come into contact with the liquid so more will be dissolved

What is henry's law

The solubility of a gas ina liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of a liquid at a constant T

What is effervescence

quick escape of bubbles of gas from a liquid in which it was dissolved

What is a example of effervescence

the escape of gas when you open the bottle of a carbonated drink

What happens to the solubility of a gas if you increase the temp

decreases, more KE means more gas will go to gas phase

What happens to the solubility of a solid when heated

most increase, but some do decrease

Dissolution of some ionic solids do what two things

absorb or release energy

If something is endo, how does it feel on the outside

cold

If something is exo how does it feel on the outside

hot

What three steps for the heat of solution

solute particles are seperated, solvent particles are seperated, solvent and solute are mixed

If something has a strong attraction, what does that make it

more exothermic

If something has a weak attraction what does that make it

less exothermic

What usually are the first two steps

endothermic

What is the third step

exothermic, depends on the attraction between solute and solvent

What is the heat of the solution

net amount of heat absorbed or released when solute is dissolved in solvent

If the heat of solution is negative, which step is bigger

third, exothermic

Why do warm sodas bubble more than cool

when gas is heated, its solubility decreases. The particles cant dissolve so they bubble to the top

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