Brooks Biology Test 2

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Benet Academy Brooks Biology Test 2

biogeochemical cycles

elements, chemical compounds and other forms of matter are passed between organisms and parts of the biosphere in a cycle

evaporation

the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas

transpiration

evaporation of water from a plant's leaves

nutrient

chemical substance that an organism requires to live

nitrogen fixation

process by which certain bacteria convert nitrogen gas to ammonia

denitrification

conversion of nitrates in the soil by bacteria into nitrogen gas

primary productivity

rate at which organic matter is created by producers in an ecosystem

limiting nutrient

single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem

algal bloom

an increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient

Ecological succession

A series of somewhat predictable changes that occur in a community over time

Pioneer species

The first species to arrive or colonize a barren area

Primary succession

A succession that begins in an area where there are no remnants of an older ecosystem

Secondary succession

A succession that occurs in an area where remnants of a previous ecosystem, such as soil, remain

Primary succession

begins in areas with no remnants of an older community. It occurs on bare rock surfaces where no soil exists. The first species to live in an area of primary succession are called pioneer species.

called pioneer species.
Secondary succession

occurs when a disturbance changes a community without completely destroying it

Climax Community

a mature, relatively stable ecosystem

Human-caused disturbance

ecosystems may or may not recover from extensive human-caused disturbances.

Over the course of succession...

... the number of different species usually increases

Commensalism

A relationship where one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed

Competitive exclusion principle

The rule that says that no two species can occupy exactly the same niche in the same habitat at exactly the same time

Habitat

The general place where an organism lives

Herbivory

Interaction in which one animal feeds on producers

Keystone species

A species in which a change in its population causes a dramatic change in the structure of the community

Mutualism

A relationship between organisms in which both benefit

Niche

What an organism does and how it interacts with the abiotic and biotic factors in the environment

Parasitism

A relationship in which one organism lives on or inside of another organism and harms it

Resource

Any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food and space

Symbiosis

Any relationship in which two organisms live closely together

Tolerance

The ability to survive and reproduce under a range of environmental conditions

Climate

Average year-after-year patterns of temperature and precipitation in a region over long periods.

Greenhouse effect

Situation in which heat is retained in Earth's Situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere due to accumulation of greenhouse gases

Weather

the condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place, day-to-day conditions

Factors That Affect Climate

solar energy trapped in the biosphere, by latitude, and by the transport of heat by winds and ocean currents.

microclimates

the different climates that exist in locations that are close to each other.

producer

an organism that makes its own food

consumer

an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms

herbivores

consumers that eat only plants

carnivores

Organisms that eat other animals for energy

omnivores

obtain energy from eating plants and meat

decomposers

Organisms that break down the dead remains of other organisms

cellular respiration

process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen

food chain

(ecology) a community of organisms where each member is eaten in turn by another member

food web

(ecology) a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains

trophic level

step in the movement of energy through an ecosystem; an organism's feeding status in an ecosystem.

water cycle

the continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back

precipitation

the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)

nitrogen-fixing bacteria

bacteria that can use nitrogen gas directly from the atmosphere

succession

(ecology) the gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is established

climax community

a stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change in species over time

secondary succession

succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil

pioneers

the first organisms to colonize any newly available area and start the process of succession.

primary succession

an ecological succession that begins in a an area where no biotic community previously existed

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