What is Krashen's theory for language acquisition?
picking up a language from social environment
What is Krashen's theory for language learning?
learning a language in a formal sense
What is affective filter?
emotional barrier to language learning that must be lowered if acquisition is to take place
How is language learning different from language acquisition?
learning provides a monitor, which allows the learner to correct language
What are the second language phases?
1) Preproduction stage
2) Early production
3) Speech Emergence
4) Intermediate and Advanced Fluency
What is Preproduction stage?
few oral skills
pointing and nodding
What should teachers do in the preproduction stage?
provide opportunities for active listening
utilize visuals and objects
What is Early production?
can produce some social words/sentences
What should teachers do in Early Production phase?
ask yes/no or either questions
What is Speech Emergence?
can understand with concrete contexts or range of personal experience
What should teachers do in the Speech Emergence phase?
focus on communication not language form and provide meaningful contexts
What is Intermediate and Advanced Fluency phase?
demonstrate increased levels of accuracy
What should teachers do in the Advanced Fluency phase?
provide opportunities to create oral and written narratives and continue ongoing lang. development
Older learners seem to gain competence in a second language ___ ______ than young children
In the long run, children _______ adults in second language.
What are the 4 types of Sequential Bilingual Children? Cummins
Type 1: Balanced
Type 2: L1 Proficient/Acquiring L2
Type 3: Some proficiency in L1/Limited L2
Type 4: Comparably Limited in L1 and L2
What is Type 1 Sequential Bilingual?
Balanced in both languages
can read, write and do math in both L1 and L2
What is Type 2 Sequential Bilingual?
Monolingual in L1/Some L2
have been educated in L1/needs time to develop L2
What is Type 3 Sequential Bilingual?
Monolingual in L1/Little L2
need to consider exclusionary clause
What is Type 4 Sequential Bilingual?
Comparably limited in both L1 and L2
What is the most stable predictor of English language development?
Literacy in L1
What is language loss?
when there is an interruption of development in L1 and intensive or prolonged exposure to L2
What is code switching?
person may alternate words in two or more languages
may be used for jokes
What is Chomsky's LAD?
language acquisition device
preprograms child to develop grammar based on the linguistic input they receive
like an operating system in a computer
What is BICS?
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
3 years to develop
Tip of the iceberg
context embedded settings
What is CALP?
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
5-7 years to develop
What is CUP?
Common Underlying Proficiency
concepts learned in L1 are common to L2
overlap of L1 and L2
What factors influence second language acquisition?
What age is it best to learn a second language?
2 years - puberty