What does ATP stand for?
What are the three parts of ATP
Nitrogen base, sugar, phosphate group
AMP- how many phosphate groups?
ADP- how many phosphate groups?
ATP- how many phosphate groups?
Where is the most energy stored in ATP?
third phosphate bond
How does ATP release energy?
Releases the third phosphate group
Why isn't ATP good for long term energy storage?
What's the formula for cellular respiration in words?
Glucose+oxygen→Carbon dioxide+water+energy (+heat)
What's the formula for cellular respiration in symbols?
What are the reactants in the formula for cellular respiration?
Glucose and oxygen
What are the products in the formula for cellular respiration?
Carbon dioxide, water, and ATP
What are the parts of a hydrogen atom?
Proton and electron
Why are hydrogen atoms moved around the body?
To move the electrons for energy
Name the two electron carriers in cellular respiration
NAD and FAD
What's the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
aerobic requires oxygen, anaerobic doesn't
Name the four steps of cellular respiration in order
Glycolysis, Pyruvate oxidation, Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation
What are the two parts of Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis
What step of cellular respiration doesn't require oxygen?
Where does glycolysis occur?
Cytosol in the cytoplasm
Where do Pyruvate oxidation, Krebs cycle, and Oxidative phosphorylation occur?
in the mitochondria
What happens to the glucose during glycolysis?
Split into pyruvate which has 2 groups of 3 carbons
How many ATP must be used to start glycolysis?
How many total ATP are made during glycolysis?
What is the net gain of ATP during glycolysis?
Name all the products of glycolysis
2 ATP, 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, and 2 H₂O
What process occurs after glycolysis if no oxygen is present?
Name the two types of fermentation
Lactic Acid Fermentation, and Alcohol Fermentation
What is the purpose of fermentation?
What types of organisms undergo alcohol fermentation?
Bacteria and yeast
What are the products of alcohol fermentation?
Ethanol and carbon dioxide
What type of food and drink is formed from alcohol fermentation?
Beer, wine, and bread
What types of organisms undergo lactic acid fermentation?
Animals and some fungi
What are the products of lactic acid fermentation?
What type of food is made from lactic acid fermentation?
List the products of pyruvate oxidation
2 Acetyl CoA, 2 CO₂, and 2 NADH
What is another name for the Krebs cycle?
Citric Acid Cycle
List the products of the Krebs cycle
4 CO₂, 2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2 FADH₂
List the amounts of NADH and FADH₂ produced in the first 3 stages
Glycolysis- 2 NADH, Pyruvate oxidation- 2 NADH, Krebs cycle- 6 NADH and 2 FADH₂
Give the total amount of NADH and FADH₂ produced in the first 3 stages
10 NADH and 2 FADH₂
List the amount of ATP produced in each of the first 3 stages
Glycolysis- 2ATP, Pyruvate oxidation- 0, Krebs Cycle- 2 ATP
Give the (net) total amount of ATP produced in the first 3 stages
Where is the location of the electron transport chain?
inner membrane of mitochondria
Describe what happens with NADH and FADH₂ when it reaches the ETC
Drop the hydrogen atom which separates into a proton and electron. NAD and FAD return to glycolysis
What is the final electron carrier in the electron transport chain/
What is formed when the electron, oxygen, and some hydrogen atoms combine in the mitochondrial matrix?
What is chemiosmosis?
The diffusion of ions through a protein
How is ATP produced during chemiosmosis?
Hydrogen ions turn the gears of the ATP synthase as they flow through, which generates ATP
What is the name of the protein through which hydrogen ions flow and ATP is made?
Approximately how many ATP are formed during Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Approximately how many total ATP are formed from one molecule of glucose?
What is a heterotroph?
An organism that gets its energy from eating others