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self-sacrificing republicanism

Theory of republicanism held typically by the educated elite (such as the Adamses). Stated that a republic could only succeed if it was small in size and homogeneous in population and the citizens were willing to sacrifice their own private interests for the good of the whole. Citizens would be given equal opportunity in return for their sacrifice.

economic republicanism

Theory of republicanism held by elite and some craftsmen (including Alexander Hamilton). Emphasized individuals' pursuit of rational self-interest. The nation would benefit through the private economic pursuits of men, rather than through subordination to communal ideals. Followed theories of Adam Smith.

egalitarian republicanism

Theory of republicanism advanced by Thomas Paine. Called for widening of men's participation in the political process. Wanted government to respond directly to the needs of ordinary folk.

Gilbert Stuart

Prominent artist who painted many portraits of upstanding republican citizens. Painted the portrait of George Washington that is depicted on the dollar bill.

Charles Peale

famous American painter who was given the nickname "Renaissance man". His most famous painting is of George Washington at the Battle of Princeton, 1781.

Society of the Cincinnati

Hereditary association for Revolutionary War officers and their firstborn male descendants founded in 1783. Hoped to advance the notion of citizen-soldier. Feared by fervent republicans who believed it would become the nucleus of native-born aristocracy.

Judith S. Murray

Chief theorist of early women's education in the early republic. From Gloucester, MA. Argued that women and men had equal intellectual capacities, that boys and girls should be offered equivalent schooling, and that girls should be taught to support themselves through their own efforts.

Abigail Adams

Strong advocate of women's involvement in the early republic. Reminded her husband to include women in the Constitution. Argued that the US should reform colonial marriage laws that discriminated women. Demonstrated that women have just as much interest in politics as their husbands. Wife of John Adams.

revolutionary ideology v slavery

The argument made that Declaration of Independence deems all men to be created equal, however slaves were not allowed the same freedoms as white men.

Brown Fellowship Society

Society formed by mulattos in Charleston. Provided insurance coverage for its members, financed a school, and helped to support orphans.

AME church

The African Methodist Episcopal church grew out of the Free African Society (FAS) which Richard Allen, Absalom Jones, and others established in Philadelphia in 1787. It was founded by the Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.

post-revolutionary racist theory

ideas involving racism after the revolutionary wart. Southern whites argues that slavery was justifiable because blacks where less intelligent, lustful, and would not be able to support themselves because they were lazy....white guys are dicks.

Benjamin Banneker

Free African American who was very gifted in the fields of mathematics and astrology. He started compiling information on astrology in tables for his annual almanacs that were published from 1792-1797.

Articles of Confederation

an agreement among the 13 founding states that legally established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution. It gave little power to the Federal Government making it impossible to build any kind of effective military. The United States Constitution later replaced it.

Robert Morris

From 1781 to 1784, he served as the powerful Superintendent of Finance, managing the economy of the fledgling United States. He was a signer of the declaration of independence, the articles of confederation, and the constitution. His work gave him the nickname "Financier of the Revolution."

Treaty of Fort Stanwix

An important treaty between the Americans, the British, and Native Americans from the Iroquois confederation. The natives and British hoped it would draw a line to stop Colonial expansion.

Northwest Ordinance

Statement passed by Congress in1787 which declared that the land north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi would be settled but that it would eventually become part of the United States.

Little Turtle

military leader of the Miami Indians of the late 18th century. He was the leader during Little Turtle's war, also known as the war Northwest Indian war. He was defeated at the battle of foreign Timbers.

Battle of Fallen Timbers

Battle won by the United States Army that ended fighting in the Northwest Indian War.

Treaty of Greenville

signed on August 3, 1795, after Native American loss at the battle of fallen timbers. ended the Northwest Indian War. US gave Native Americans goods worth about $20,000 (such as blankets, utensils, and domestic animals) and the Native Americans gave to the United States large parts of modern-day Ohio, the future site of downtown Chicago,the Fort Detroit area, Maumee Ohio Area, and the Lower Sandusky Ohio Area

Annapolis Convention

a meeting at Annapolis, Maryland of 12 delegates from five states that called for a constitutional convention. They wanted to fix barriers on trade and commerce between large independent states caused by the Articles of Confederation, but they decided they couldn't make any decisions because not enough states were represented. They decided that in one year they would hold another convention in Philadelphia.

Constitutional Convention

took place from May 14 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Initially its purpose was to revise the Articles of Confederation but it ended up creating a new government through the United States Constitution.

James Madison

an American statesman and political theoris who is credited with the creation of the Constitution.

principle of checks and balances

a concept set up in the United States Constitution whereby the various powers of any government are divided into 3 separate branches with no one branch having all of such powers. This is so that no one of the 3 branches of government (executive, legislative, judicial) becomes so powerful that it becomes a virtual monarchy. It also ensures that all three will work together in relative harmony since each needs the others to perform its obligations properly.

Virginia Plan

a proposal by Virginia delegates, for having two legislative houses. The plan was drafted by James Madison while he waited for a group to assemble at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. It was notable for its role in setting the overall agenda for debate in the convention and, in particular, for setting forth the idea of population-weighted representation in the proposed national legislature.

New Jersey Plan

opposite of the Virginia Plan; proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote; this created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states

3/5 Compromise

the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus 3/5s of the slaves

Separation of Powers

Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law

Federalists

supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams; firmly believed the national government should be strong; didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution

Anti-federalists

opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights; many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation; instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states; after the ratification of the Constitution, these people regrouped as the Republican party

The Federalist

a series of articles written in New York newspapers as a source of propaganda for a stronger central government; written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison; a way for the writers to express their belief that it is better to have a stronger central government

Roger Sherman

helped draft the Great Compromise that determined how states would be represented in Congress. Also, he was an American Revolutionary leader and signer of the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution (1721-1793)

Benjamin Franklin

American intellectual, inventor, and politician. He helped French support for the American Revolution. He was 81 at Constitutional Convention as the oldest delegate presiding.

Great Compromise

the agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).

George Washington

Leader of the constitutional convention, Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.

Branches of Government

The division of government into executive, legislative, and judicial branches. In the case of the federal government, the three branches were established by the Constitution.

Thomas Jefferson

A political leader of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries; one of the Founding Fathers; the leader of the Democratic-Republican party. Principal author of the Declaration of Independence and served as president from 1801 to 1809, between John Adams and James Madison.

Trade Compromise

When the Founding Fathers were writing the US Constitution, they came across the issue of slavery. They decided that it would remain legal until 1808, 20 years later.

Vice President

Elected at the same time as the President and who succeeds to the presidency on the resignation, removal, death, or disability of the President. Often called the "running mate" to the President.

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