Ralph Waldo Emerson
wrote "The American Scholar" and "Self Reliance"; said "Europe stretches to the Alleghenies, America lies beyond"; transcendentalist
Quaker, helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention; woman delegates to London anti-slavery conference not recognized
followers of a Calvinist Baptist Minister who taught that the 2nd coming of Christ would come in 1844
Thomas Hart Benton
Missouri senator, expansionist, wanted to stand up to Britain over the Oregon territory issue
Worcester vs. Georgia
Supreme Court ruled that Georgia law could not be enforced in the Cherokee Nation
established boundary of Maine (between US and Britain); US gained more land (including iron ore in MN), Britain gained Halifax/Quebec route
banks in which Jackson deposited federal money; these were his chief weapon in his struggle with the U.S. Bank
SC senator who sought to safeguard minority interests in the South in a debate with Webster
Sam Houston (commander in chief)
former TN governor; tragic marriage, alcoholism, living with Indians, Texas
James Beckwith (Beckwourth)
born a slave (white father, mulatto mother), freed in 1810; mountain man in VA; lived among the Crow Indians in the West; member of Gen. Kearney's forces in CA
James G. Birney
Kentucky anti-slavery leader; presidential candidate of Liberty party in 1840, free soil (keep slavery out of territories) platform
Benjamin Henry Lantrobe
British born; first professional architect in US (classical revival style); completed the Capitol building in Washington DC; cathedral in Baltimore
Daniel Webster, Henry Clay
two able and experienced leaders of the Whigs who had hoped to govern through a weak president 1841 - 1845
"tyranny of the majority"
term used by de Tocqueville in Democracy in America which described why, although individuals have legal freedom in American democracy, there is great pressure for them to conform
Hannah Forsharn Lee
woman author who wrote on living within one's income (Three Experiences in Living) in response to 1837 economic panic
John C. Calhoun
as vice-president under Jackson, he changed from a nationalist to a Southern sectionalist
daughter of a Washington boardinghouse keeper who married Secretary of War under Jackson
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians forced to leave their lands; traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas, more than 800 miles (1,287 km), to the Indian Territory; more than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during this 116-day journey
political & social democracy, rapid expansion of the west, the president as representative of all the people
What are the 3 main characteristics of Jacksonian Democracy?
conservatives, popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners; mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists; took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution; policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System; generally upper class in origin; included Clay and Webster
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
Abolition of the property requirement (for voting)
the most important political aspect of "Jacksonian Democracy"
Panic of 1837
Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress
Election of 1824
There were four candidates, not two: Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, Henry Clay of Kentucky, William H. Crawford of Georgia, and John Q. Adams of Massachusetts; since the votes were spread out, no candidate got a majority of the electoral vote and won; Jackson got the most votes, but not a majority; Adams came in second, then Crawford, then Clay; election went to the House
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Tariff of Abominations
The bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings.
This person was criticized in the election of 1828 because of her divorce troubles and supposed "adultery".
Election of 1828
Andrew Jackson defeats John Quincy Adams, 178 electoral college votes to 83 electoral college votes; marks the first success of the new national party system
South Carolina Exposition
A pamphlet published by the South Carolina legislature, written by John C. Calhoun. It spoke against the "Tariff of Abominations," and proposed nullification of the tariff. Calhoun wished to use nullification to prevent secession, yet address the grievances of sectionalist Southerners. These sectionalist ideas helped lead to the Civil War.
Tariff of 1832
a slightly lower tariff compared to the Tariff of 1828. It fell short of the South's demands
group who tried to get the necessary 2/3 vote to nullify the tariff in South Carolina Legislature
the "Bloody Bill" that authorized the president to use the military to collect federal tariff duties
said that the tariff rate would be reduced by about 10% over 8 years; reason why the Nullification Crisis of 1832 did not end in civil war
tribe who settled down to become farmers; largely accepted Christianity; devised alphabet so they could write; soon set up a government with a legislative, executive, and judicial branch.
Indian Removal Act
law passed in 1830 that forced many Native American nations to move west of the Mississippi River
Bureau of Indian Affairs
A government agency created in the 1800s to oversee federal policy toward Native Americans
The Bank War
Jackson believed the Bank of US had too much power, and was too rich. Whigs were scared he was going to destroy the Bank, so Clay and Webster decided to apply for renewal early, before the next election. Jackson vetoed the bill to renew the charter, but the people agreed with him
gained considerable influence in New England and the mid-Atlantic during the 1832 election, campaigning against the politically influential secret society; opposed Andrew Jackson; drew much of their support from evangelical Protestants
A bill passed by Van Buren in 1837, that divorced the government from banking altogether, and established an independent treasury, so the government could lock its money in vaults in several of the larger cities.
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)
Battle of the Alamo
Siege in the Texas War for Independence of 1836, in which the San Antonio mission fell to the Mexicans. Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie were among the courageous defenders
settlement of western lands as eastern cities became too crowded and new lands became available after the Louisiana Purchase
term used to describe the 1840s, when the potato famine struck Ireland and caused the mass imigration of Irish to America.
Secret Nativist political party that opposed Immigration during the 1840's and early 1850's
sprang out of the Enlightenment (AKA "Age of Reason") and was based on scientific or logical reasoning rather than faith; rejected "the divinity of Christ"; the clockmaker theory
Believed God existed in 1 person, but not the Holy Trinity; rejected the divinity of Christ; believed people were essentially good at heart, not born under "original sin"; believed people were saved through "good works", not through faith in Christ; attracted intellectual types, notably Ralph Waldo Emerson; drew people even farther from Christianity
2nd Great Awakening
The renewal of religous faith in the 1790's and early 1800's; started many reform movements including public education, temperance (not drinking alcohol), women's suffrage (right to vote), prison reform, and better treatment for the mentally handicapped; missionaries went westward in attempt to Christianize Native Americans; Methodists and Baptists were the big winners in the movement; gap between the classes and regions were widened
American Temperance Society
An organization group in which reformers are trying to help the ever present drink problem. This group was formed in Boston in 1826, and it was the first well-organized group created to deal with the problems drunkards had on societies well being, and the possible well-being of the individuals that are heavily influenced by alcohol.
cult of domesticity
the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
radical experiment that practiced free love, birth control, and flourished largely because of superior steel products
clash over the Maine-Canada boundary where a road was proposed to connect Halifax and Quebec
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
lower the tariff, restore independent treasury, clear up Oregon border issue, acquire California
James K Polk's 4-point mission for himself and the nation
Resolution offered by Congressman Abraham Lincoln demanding to know the precise location where Mexicans had allegedly shed American blood on the "America" soil
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico; failed in the Senate
Perpetual Union Theory
proposed by Daniel Webster; declared that the Constitution is not a compact between sates, but between the US gov't and the people of the nation; "a rope of sand", the Union will collapse
Frederick Jackson Turner
United States historian who stressed the role of the western frontier in American history
frontier made Americans equal, democratic, nationalistic; frontier gave Americans faith in the future; frontier acted as a "safety valve" for the factory workers
What are 3 of Frederick Jackson Turner's arguments in his "frontier thesis"?