Unit 2 Egypt and the Near East

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Review of key terms for Unit 2 Test

Egyptian Civilization

A society of people who lived in the Northeast corner of Africa from around 3100 B.C.E. to 350 C.E.

Hebrew Civilization

A society of people who lived to the Northeast of Egypt in Canaan from about 1800 B.C.E. to 70 C.E.

Environmental factors

The water, topography, and vegetation of an area or region

Geography

The physical features of an area

Topography

The surface features of a region such as mountains or deserts

Vegetation

the plants of a place or region

Delta

An area of sediment deposited at the mouth of a river

Fertilization

the process of adding fertilizer, or plant food to soil

Papyrus

A tough water plant used to make paper and rope in the ancient times.

Nomad

a person who moves from place to place with no permanent home.

Pharaoh

An ancient Egyptian leader

Old Kingdom

A period in Ancient Egyptian history that lasted from about 2700-2200 B.C.E.

Middle Kingdom

A period in Ancient Egyptian history that lasted from about 2000-1800 B.C.E.

New Kingdom

A period in Ancient Egyptian history that lasted from about 1600-1100 B.C.E.

Pyramid

a huge triangular shaped monument of Ancient Egypt built around a tomb

Social Classes

A group of society distinguished from other groups by such things as wealth, property, and rights.

Social Pyramid

The drawing of a pyramid shape with levels showing how social classes are positioned above and below one another regarding power and rights in the society

Artisan

A Craftsperson

Peasant

A person who does farm work for wealthy landowners

Vizier

A high ranking government official

Alliance

an agreement between nations to work together for common interests

Embalm

to treat a dead body with preservatives to prevent it from decaying

Sarcophagus

A large stone coffin

Hieroglyph

A symbol used hieroglyphics, a system of writing developed in about 3000 B.C.E.

Census

An official count of the population

Famine

A severe shortage of food

Judaism

A major World religion founded by the Hebrews

Torah

The first five books of the Jewish Bible

Abraham

The leader who led the Hebrews from Mesopotamia to Canaan

Moses

Hebrew leader who led his people out of slavery in Egypt and brought Judaism its fundamental laws, the 10 Commandments

David

The Hebrew King that established Jerusalem as a holy city.

Solomon

The Hebrew King that built the Great Temple of Jerusalem; Son of David

Covenant

An agreement or promise

Descendant

A daughter or son, Grandson or Granddaughter, etc.

Sacrifice

A gift of an animal for slaughter as a way to honor gods

Prophet

A person who speaks or interprets for God to other people

Plague

A terrible disaster affecting many people and thought to be sent by God as a punishment.

Exodus

the escape of the Hebrews from Egyptian Slavery.

Ten Commandments

The ten laws said to have been given to Moses by God

Sabbath

the seventh day of the week to be used for rest and worship.

Ark of the Covenant

the chest containing the 10 commandments

Diaspora

A scattering

Monotheism

A belief that there is only 1 God

Polytheism

A belief that there are many Gods

Rabbi

A religious teacher who studies and teaches others about Jewish Law

Talmud

A collection of Ancient Jewish writings that interpret the law of the Torah

Execute

To Kill

Gentile

non-Jewish

Synagogue

A place of Jewish Worship

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