Biology Quiz Chapter 5
|Energy|| The capacity to perform work. |
The capacity to cause change, especially to perform work.
All living systems use this to survive and maintain homeostasis.
|Work||The movement of mass across a surface or across an area of some type or across a media, whatever it happens to be.|
|Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy||What are the two types of energy?|
|Kinetic Energy|| Energy in motion|
The energy of a mass of matter that is moving. Moving matter does work by imparting motion to other matter.
|Potential Energy|| Stored energy |
The energy that matter possesses because of its location or arrangement. Water behind a dam possesses this kind of energy, and so do chemical bonds.
|Energy Transformation||In livings systems and in the universe potential energy are switch from one to the other and vise versa.|
|Thermodynamics|| The study of energy and energy transformation|
The study of energy transformation that occurs in a collection of matter.
| First Law: Conservation of Energy |
Second Law: Entropy
|What are the first two laws of thermodynamics?|
|First Law of Thermodynamics||Conservation of Energy. The principle of the conservation of energy |
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can be transformed from one type to the other (i.e. potential to kinetic or kinetic to potential). Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed. Energy nor matter can be created nor destroyed, but can be transformed from one to the other.
|Second Law of Thermodynamics||Entropy |
The universe tends towards entropy (randomness or chaos). The principle stating that every energy conversion reduces the order of the universe, increasing its energy. Ordered forms are of energy are at lease partly converted to energy. Everything wants to blow apart so that kinetic energy is released and its random throughout the universe.
|Endergonic Reactions and Exergonic Reactions||What are the two types of chemical reactions based on energy?|
|Endergonic Reactions||Store Energy. An energy-requiring chemical reaction, which yields products with more potential energy than the reactants. The amount of energy stored in the products equals the difference between the potential energy in the reactants and that in the products. Ending up with products having more energy in them than the reactants. What has to be done is kinetic energy has to be stored in a molecule (that is potential energy).|
|Exergonic Reactions||Release Energy. An energy-releasing chemical reaction in which the reactants contain more potential energy than the products. The reaction releases an amount of energy equal to the difference in potential energy between the reaction and the products; take a macro-molecule and bust it apart to release energy. Transforming potential energy into kinetic energy. The substrate (reactants) has more energy in them than what the products will have.|
|Energy Coupling||In living systems, to converse energy, energy released from an exergonic reaction can be used to drive an endergonic reaction, therefore these reactions are tied closely together. |
In cellular metabolism, the use of energy is released from an exergonic reaction is used to drive an endergonic reaction.
|Metabolism||The sum total of all chemical reactions taking place in a living system; both endergonic and exergonic.|
|Anabolic and Catabolic||What are the two types of metabolism?|
|Anabolic Pathway|| A metabolic pathway that consumes energy to synthesize a complex molecule from simpler compounds.|
Synthesize and are typically endergonic in nature (store potential energy).
Synthesis, dehydration, endergonic (reduction reaction).
|Catabolic Pathway|| A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds.|
Degradate and are typically exergonic in nature (release kinetic energy).
Degradation, hydration, exergonic (oxidative reaction).
|Process of Phosphorylation||The transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule.|
|ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)|| High potential energy shuttle molecule. |
Primary energy source for cellular work. Nearly all cellular work depend on this energizing other molecules by phosphorylation.
Renewable energy source via cellular respiration.
|Metabolic Pathways||A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds.|
|Catalyst||Any substance that controls the rate of reaction and it is not used up in that reaction.|
|Enzyme||A macromolecule, usually a protein, that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed by the reaction.|
|Activation Energy||The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start. Minimum energy required to start the chemical reaction.|
|Shape||In proteins (and enzymes) what determines their function?|
|Substrate|| A specific substance (reactant) on which an enzyme acts. Each enzyme recognizes only the specific ______ of the reaction it catalyzes. |
A surface in or on which an organism lives.
|Active Site||The part of an enzyme molecule where a substrate molecule attaches (by means of weak chemical bonds). Typically, a pocket or groove on the enzyme's surface.|
|Induced Fit||The change of shape of the active site of an enzyme, caused by entry of the substrate, so that it binds more snugly to the substrate.|
|Lock and Key Theory||States that enzymes must fit into a certain protein in order to be broken down.|
|Temperature (Denaturation), pH (Activation and Denaturation), Concentration of Enzymes, Concentration of Substrate, Presence of Cofactors, Combination of Above||What are the rates of reactions effected by?|
|Inorganic and Organic||What are the two types of cofactors?|
|Inorganic Cofactors||Typically minerals or ions|
|Organic Cofactors|| Non-protein|
Typically are vitamins or vitamins
|Feedback Mechanism|| A mechanism or a signal that tends to initiate (or accelerate) or to inhibit (or slow down) a process. |
A way to maintain homeostasis or the way a cell maintains its homeostasis.
|Receptor, controller, effector||What are the three parts of a feedback mechanism?|
|Receptor||Receives stimuli from the environment|
|Controller||Regulates or directs.|
|Effector||Provides the means for the control center's response to the stimulus|
|Positive and Negative||What are the types of a feedback system?|
|Positive Feedback System|| The controller enhances the stimulus somehow someway. |
A type of control in which a change triggers mechanisms that amplify the change.
|Negative Feedback System||A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial change.|
|Competitive and Non-Competitive||What are the two types of feedback inhibitions?|
|Competitive Feedback Inhibition||The product will block the active site or partially block the active site of an enzyme. They compete for the active site.|
|Non-Competitive Feedback Inhibition||The product does not compete for the active site of an enzyme.|
|Membranes|| The thin, limiting covering of a cell or cell part.|
They are all structurally the same.
|Plasma Membranes||All cells have these kinds of membranes.|
|Membraneous Organelles||All eukaryotic cells have these kinds of membranes.|
|Separate/Compartmentalize, Regulate Ingress and Egress, Selectively Permeable, Increase Surface Area, Organizational Sites, Protect||What are the functions of membranes?|
|Ingress|| The act of entering|
What goes in
|Egress|| The act of coming (or going) out|
What goes out
|Biphospholipid Layer||All membranes are bilipid layers of phospholipids and proteins.|
|Fatty Acid Tails||Hydrophobic and Non-Polar|
|Phosphate Heads||Hydrophilic and Polar|
|Cholesterol||They run throughout the biphosphate layer. They are a lipid and a steroid. Because it is such a large molecule, it keeps the membrane from packing. It also controls fluidity of the cell membrane. The more of this there is in a given area the more viscus it becomes. It also helps maintain the rigidity or viscosity of the cell membrane or any membrane where there are temperature fluctuations. It helps maintain membranes integrity when it gets hot/cold.|
|Membrane Proteins||They perform specific functions for the cell membrane.|
|Surface Proteins||Located on one of the lipid layers verses the other and they can move freely in and out.|
|Transport, Attachment (Junctional), Binding, Signal Transduction, Receptors, "Pores", Enzymatic Reactions, Immune Systems (Glyco Proteins and Glyco Lipids)||What are the functions of proteins?|
|Glyco Proteins||Found on envelopes; protein with an attached carb|
|Glyco Lipids||Lipids attached to proteins|
|Phospholipids and Proteins||What are the two things membranes have?|
|Passive Transport and Active Transport||What are the kinds of transport across the cell membrane?|
|Passive Transport||Transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion|
|Diffusion||The movement of materials from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration through any type of media, it doesn't matter if it's a liquid or if it's a solid or a semisolid or if it's air, until equilibrium is met.|
|Simple Diffusion and Facilitated Diffusion||What are the two types of diffusion?|
|Simple Diffusion|| The movement of substances from high concentration to low concentration, so it's overall movement is along the concentration gradient. |
Movement from a high concentration area to a low concentration area, only works with oily substances, needs to cross oily cell membrane (nonpolar substances), no energy is required
|Facilitated Diffusion||Basically means we are going from high concentration to lower concentration with the aid of a protein, so the protein facilitates the movement.|
|Solvent and Solute||What are the parts of a solution?|
|Solvent||The substance doing the disassociation|
|Solute||The substance being disassociated|
|Tonicity||The ratio or concentration of solute particles outside of the cell vs. the inside of the cell.|
|Concentration Gradient||A region along which the density of a chemical substance increases or decreases. Cells often maintain this of ions across their membranes. When this exits, substances tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.|
|Isotonic, Hypertonic, and Hypotonic||What are the types of tonicity solutions?|
|Isotonic Solution||Iso means the same, which means there is the same number of solute particles inside of the cell vs. the outside of the cell.|
|Hypertonic Solution||There is a higher solute concentration outside of the cell than inside of the cell.|
|Crenation|| In animal cells that are in hypertonic solutions, the cells starts to loose water and there is a hole in the cell, so it starts to shrivel up. |
In animal cells, shriveling of the cell due to water leaving the cell when the environment is hypertonic.
|Plasmolysis||In plant cells that are in hypertonic solutions, typically the cell membrane is pushed up tightly against the plasmodesmoda in the cell wall and they start to loose water and pull away. |
The contraction or shrinking of the cell membrane of a plant cell in a hypertonic solution in response to the loss of water.
|Hypotonic Solution||There is less concentration solute particles outside of the cell than inside of the cell.|
|Lysing|| In animal cells that are in hypotonic solutions, cells fill up to the point of bursting. |
Occurs when an animal cell is placed in a hypotonic solution and gains too much water, causing that to burst.
|Turger Pressure|| In plant cells that are in hypotonic solutions, causes cell walls to budge. |
The pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall.
|Active Transport|| The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins and requiring an input of energy (often as ATP). |
Can be used to "pump" against the concentration gradient.
Moves bulky materials.
|Exocytosis and Endocytosis||What are the two movements of bulky materials?|
|Exocytosis||The movement of materials out of the cytoplasm of a cell by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.|
|Endocytosis||Cellular uptake of molecules or particles via formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane.|
|Phagocytosis, Pinocytosis, Receptor Mediated||What are the types of endocytosis?|
|Phagocytosis|| Cellular "eating"|
A type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs macromolecules, other cells, or particles into its cytoplasm.
|Pinocytosis|| Cellular "drinking" |
A type of endocytosis in which the cell takes fluid and dissolves solutes into small membraneous vesicles.
|Receptor Mediated||The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membraneous vesicles, which contain proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in.|
|Osmosis||A type of facilitated movement, where by water (and water only) moves in a higher concentration to a lower concentration through a selectively permeable membrane until equilibrium is met.|
|Peripheral, Surface, Transmembraneal||What are the three types of proteins?|
|Peripheral Proteins||Proteins that sit on the outer surface of the cell membrane.|
|Surface Proteins||Located on one of the lipid layers versus the other and they can freely move in and out.|
|Transmembraneal Proteins||Proteins that go all the way through the cell membrane.|
|Osmoregulation||The homeostatic maintenance of solute concentrations and the balance of water gain and loss.|