bucks art test 2

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Tempera

• Was used by ancient Egyptians, Greeks and romans. Artists perfected it during the middle ages, when it was used for small paintings on wood panels, most traditional tempera use egg yolk as a binder

Water Color

Pigments are mixed with water as a vehicle and gum Arabic (sap from the acacia tree) as a binder

Support

• Paint surface requires support, or structure to hold them, wood panel, stretched canvas and paper are common support

Size or sizing

Such sealing is usually called size or sizing, and is generally made of clay, wax, or glue

Tempera-

Was used by ancient Egyptians, Greeks and romans. Artists perfected it during the middle ages, when it was used for small paintings on wood panels, most traditional tempera use egg yolk as a binder

Water Color-

Pigments are mixed with water as a vehicle and gum Arabic (sap from the acacia tree) as a binder

Support-

Paint surface requires support, or structure to hold them, wood panel, stretched canvas and paper are common support

Size or sizing-

Such sealing is usually called size or sizing, and is generally made of clay, wax, or glue

Primer-

Artist often apply a primer in order to create a uniform surface

Ground-

The sizing plus the primer equals the ground of the painting , and constitutes the surface preparation that artists generally do

All paints consist of three ingredients-

Pigment- provides color usually in the form of powder
Binder- a sticky substance that hold the pigment particles together and attaches the pigments to the surface
Vehicle-makes the paint a liquid, and can be added to the paint for thinning

Gouache-

Opaque water colors (also called gouache) has been widely used for centuries, It is like water colors except the vehicle include small amounts of fine chalk powder that makes it opaque

Gesso-

The preferred ground for egg tempera is gesso, a chalky, water-based liquid that dries to a bright white

Glaze-

A glaze is a very thin, transparent film of color applied over a previously painted surface

Impasto-

Oil can be applied thickly or thinly, wet onto wet or wet onto dry, when applied thickly, it is called impasto (only oil paint has this capacity).

Acrylic-

An invention of the late twentieth century, the binder that holds the pigment us acrylic polymer, a synthetic resin that provides a fast drying, flexible film

Oil based paint advantages-

Compared to tempera, oil paints can provide both increased opacity -which yields better covering power-and when thinned , greater transparency, (slow drying time is a distinct advantage allowing artist to blend color and make changes during the painting process)

Tempera-

Was used by ancient Egyptians, Greeks and romans. Artists perfected it during the middle ages, when it was used for small paintings on wood panels, most traditional tempera use egg yolk as a binder

Print-

Is a multiple work of art, a series of nearly identical pieces, usually printed on paper

Matrix-

Which an artist might create of book or stone

Edition-

The artist supervises the printing of a group of images from the same matrix, usually called an edition

Artist proof-

When the satisfactory stage is reached, the artist makes a few prints for his own record and personal use, these are marked AP, meaning artist proof

Progressive proofs-

As part of the print making process, artist make prints called progressive proofs at various, stages to see how the image on the matrix is developing.

Etching-

Begins with the preparation of a metal plate the artist paints the surface of a copper or zinc plate with a coating of either wax or varnish that will resist acid, the artist then cuts easily through the ground with a pointed tool exposing the metal with each stroke

Linoleum cut-

Is a modern development in relief printing, the artist starts with the rubbery, synthetic surface of linoleum and just as in wood cut, gouges out the areas not intended to take ink

Woodcuts-

Oldest reliefs are woodcuts, the wood cut lends its self to design with bold black and white contrast
Originated from china

Wood engraving-

A related method that was used for book illustration is wood engraving

Dry points-

An acid free method in where she simply scratched the metal plate with a diamond tipped tool, leaving a shallow groove and low ridge that would take the ink
A dry point ridge is called a burr is fragile, so prints made with dry point are usually small editions

Lithography-

Was not developed until the 19th century
Is a surface or pantographic printing process based on the mutual antipathy of oil and water (greasy crayon)

Daguerreotype-

The painter Louis Jacques Mande Degeurro further perfected Niepce's process and produced some of the first satisfactory photograph that were known as Deguerro
He made them by exposing iodized silver plates in the presence of mercery vapor; images were fixed on the plate with a mineral salt solution

Registered-

When more than one color is used their separated into small blocks- one for each color- are carefully registered (lined Up) to ensure that the colors will be exactly placed in the final print

Screen printing-

Is a refinement of the technique stencil printing, early in the last century, stencil technique was improved by adhering the stencil to a screen made of silk fabric stretched across a frame (Silk Screen)

Stencil-

Is a sheet with a design cut out of it , painting or spraying over the sheet transfers the design to the picture planePhoto screen achieved by attaching light sensitive gelatin to the screen fabric

Film Editing-

The process in which the editors take the best shots from raw footage then reassembles them into a meaning full sequence and finally into a total, unified progression

Water Color-

Pigments are mixed with water as a vehicle and gum Arabic (sap from the acacia tree) as a binder

Motion Capture-

A technique whereby the actions of the actors are scanned and digitalized in three-dimensional modeling and used to create an alternative version for the screen

Camera Obscura-The fore runner of the modern camera was the camera obscura, literally "dark room"

The concept of photography grew out of fact that reflected sunlight that passed through a hole in the wall projected an inverted of whatever lies outside

Graphic Design-

Refers to the process of working with word and pictures to enhance visual communication

Photography as an Artform-

Personal expression
Symbolic communication

Zoe Leonard-

(Artifacts) gathered over four thousand post card s that depict Niagara falls

Margaret Bourke-White-

Pioneer of photo journalism
She made memorable of most of the world's major events

Eadweard Muybridge-

The art of cinema has its roots in 1872 when a man photographed a horse, Leland Stanford (the founder of Stanford University) that all four legs of a horse come off the ground when they are running (motion)

Persistence of vision-

The illusion of motion is made possible by persistence of vision, the brief retention of our retina of our eyes after a stimulus is removed

Montage-

One of Eisenstein's major continuation was the skilled use of montage to heighten dramatic intensity
Following the Russian revolution in 1917 (the editing technique of combining a number of very brief shots, representing a distinct but related subject matter, in order to create a new relationship, build strong emotion or indicate the passage of time

Typography-

Is the art of technique of composing printed materials to letterform (type face, or fonts)

Logo-

A logo is an identifying mark, or trademark, based on letterforms combined with pictorial elements
Corporation finely calibrate logos to present a distinctive and memorable appearance

Relief-

A sculpture that is not free standing but projects from a background surface is a relief

Low relief-

Sometimes called bass relief sculpture, the projection from the surrounding surface is slight
A type of low relief would be a coin

High relief-

In high relief sculptures more than half of the natural circumference of the model form projects from the surrounding surface, and figures are often substantially undercut

Methods of sculpturing-

Sculpture has been made by modeling, casting, carving, constructing and assembling or a combination of these processes

Casting-

involves the substitution of one material for another, casting is also called the substitution process (Clay)

Modeling-

is usually an addictive process. Pliable material such as clay, wax or plaster is built up, removed, and pushed into a final form

Carving-

away unwanted material to form a sculpture is a subtractive process

Constructing and assembling-

early in the twentieth century, assembling methods became popular. Such works are called assembled sculpture or constructions

Installation art-

Many artists now use the three dimensional medium of installation to tell a story visually, an installation artist transforms a space by bringing into it items of symbolic significance

Clay-

Clay comes from the soil with heavy volcanic makeup, mixed with water, since humans began to live in settled communities, clay has been a valuable art material, it is extremely flexible in the artist hands, yet it hardens to a permanent shape when exposed to heat

Glaze-

Is a liquid paint with a silica base, specially formulated for clay, during the firing the glaze vitrifies (turns to a glass like substance) and fuses with the clay body and becomes a nonporous surface

Formalist-

Which focus attention on the composition of the work and how it may have been influenced by earlier works

Contextual-

Which consider art as a product of a culture and value system

Mesopotamia-

Greeks named the broad plain between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers "the land between two rivers"

Hierarchic scale-

Sizes of human figures are determined by social rank a system known as Hierarchic scale

Expressive-

Which pay attention to the artists expression of a personality or world view

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