2nd Great Awakening
Series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on methodism and baptism, stressed philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for protestants. Attracted women, African Americans,and Native Americans, Began around 1790. Took place both in churches and frontier camp meetings and often led to the creation of new denominations. Fueled the expansion of Protestant Christianity. Baptist and Methodists evangelized the cities and backcountry of NE. Emotional msg and promise of religious fellowship attracted the unchurched and geo mobile families. Threw out stodgy written sermons and spoke in plain language. Helped slaves prepare selves spiritually for emancipation. Stress human ability and individual free will. Religion became a central force in political life.
temperance, suffrage, prison reform, education, abolition
-The Age of Reason by Thomas Paine
How did 2nd Great Awakening spread?
-camp meetings for several days
best known of the Methodist traveling frontier preachers; ill-educated, strong servant of the Lord who spent 50 years traveling from Tennessee to Illinois while calling upon sinners to repent; converted thousands with his bellowing voice and flailing arms; physically knocked out those who tried to break up his meetings
An evangelist who was one of the greatest preachers of all time (spoke in New York City). He also made the "anxious bench" for sinners to pray and was was against slavery and alcohol.
"Feminization of Religion"
Women took charge of new religious roles because they were dismissed from every other segment of public life, and formed several new religious sects during the 2nd Great Awakening. They became much more involved in the church, and even expanded their education, basically giving themselves much more authority in life.
-brought family back to God, reform movements
Mormons (Latter Day Saints)
church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT
Founded the Mormon religion after reporting that he was visited by an angel and given golden plates in 1840; the plates, when deciphered, brought about the Church of Latter Day Saints and the Book of Mormon; he ran into opposition from Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri when he attempted to spread the Mormon beliefs, but was killed by non believer. Smith establishment of the Mormon faith started a movement within America of values including no drinking, gambling, and an unorthodox view of marriage. His sacrifice for his religious beliefs is a symbol of what America was built on back in the colonial days.
-polygamy delayed admittance of state
-no education = stupid citizens (not good)
-disliked by south (smart slaves=revolt)
-taxes paid by wealthy
Horace Mann (1796-1859)
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.
American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. He also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language.
-Before: penal system was inefficient and unfair
-imprisonment for debt banned, less severe criminal codes
-Idea: reform and help guide
Care for Mentally Ill
-Before: insanity treated as uncleaned spirits, chained and treated like beasts
-Dorothea Dix: bad reports...need improvements
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
He contributed to the American Peace Society and made speeches that promoted peace.
campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
-majorly revolted by men
-women advocated...didn't like drunk husbands
-owners advocated...didn't like drunk workers
-deficiency of labor led to more accidents
-Success :D -----later repealed
Wrote "Ten Nights in a Barroom and What I Saw There". Described how a village was ruined by a tavern.
Neal S. Dow
the mayor of Portland, Maine who, in 1851, sponsored a law that helped earn his nickname "Father of Prohibition."
The movement developed from the fight against slavery.
-Success :D (19th Amendment)
The site of the women's rights convention that met in July in 1848. They met in the Wesleyan Chapel, and 300 men and women attended. At the convention, they vote in the Seneca Falls Declaration, which was signed by 32 men.
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
Quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she was a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.
people who believed that slavery should be against the law
-Unsuccessful until after civil war :(
one of the most prominent african american figures in the abolitionist movement. escaped from slavery in maryland. he was a great thinker and speaker. published his own antislavery newspaper called the north star and wrote an autobiography that was published in 1845.
Group of small societies that appeared during the 1800s in an effort to reform American society and create a "perfect" environment (Ex. Shakers, Oneidas, Brook Farm, etc.).
a series of letters to the editors written in 1787-88 by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay urging the adoption of a strong national gov.
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin
A homespun account by Benjamin Franklin of his early and middle years. He advocates hard work and stresses the importance of worldly success.
American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).
James Fennimore Cooper
Wrote numerous sea-stories as well as the historical romances known as the Leather stocking Tales, featuring frontiersman Natty Bumppo. Among his most famous works is the romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans, which many people consider his masterpiece.
Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.
Early supporter of women's education, in 1818. She published Plan for Improving Education, which became the basis for public education of women in New York. 1821, she opened her own girls' school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women for college.
in 1837 founded the first college for women, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary
New Harmony (1825) by Robert Owen
This was a society that focusted on Utopian Socialism (Communism). It was started by Robert Owens but failed because everybody did not share a fair load of the work.
Brook Farm (1841) by George Ripley
a utopian community founded in Massachusetts, by twenty transcendentalist intellectuals. this community failed when fire engulfed an almost completed building in 1846, and the community went into debt. this community inspired "The Blithedale Romance (1852)," by Nathaniel Hawthorne, in which the main character was modeled after Margaret Fuller, who was a feminist writer.
This man both helped to lead the first national union in England and advocated the use of children in factories
Oneida Community (1848) by John Noyes
a radical utopian community established in New York, in which complex marriage (free love), male consistence (a form of birth control), and controlled breeding to create a new superior generation, were all practiced. the community lasted for over thirty years because artisans made advanced steel traps and the Oneida Community Plate (made of silver).
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
United States naturalist (born in Switzerland) who studied fossil fish recognized geological evidence that ice ages had occurred in North America (1807-1873)
the "Columbus of American botany" who taught at Harvard College and published over 350 books, monographs and papers; his textbooks set new standards for clarity and interest
John J. Audubon
1785 to 1851; He was an artist who specialized in painting wild fowl. He had such works as Birds of America. Ironically, he shot a lot of birds for sport when he was young. The Audubon Society for the protection of birds was named after him. His depictions of western wildlife contributed to the western population movements.
Stephen C. Foster
white Pennsylvanian who wrote the most famous black songs; went to the south one time in 1852; contributed to American folk music by capturing the painful spirit of slaves; lost his art and popularity and died in a charity ward as a drunkard
group in New York that wrote literature and enabled America to boast for the first time of a literature that matched its magnificent landscapes
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
American poet that was influenced somewhat by the transcendentalism occurring at the time. He was important in building the status of American literature. - indians
John Greenleaf Whittier
Quaker poet; poet laureate of the antislavery crusade; important in influencing social action; cried out against inhumanity, injustice, and intolerance; was undeterred by insults and stoning; aroused America over slavery; poet of human freedom
He was the secretary of the navy. Took part in the founding of Annapolis naval academy. The Father of American history because he published six volumes of US history showing patriotism and nationalism.