Chapter 7 Psychology Exam 2

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Psychology

Which of the following is the important finding in the research by Lepper et al. (1973) on the effects of reward?
A) Reward can motivate students to do better
B) Monetary reward is not effective
C) Reward can undermine initial interest in a behavior
D) The effects of reward only last a short period of time

Answer:
C) Reward can undermine initial interest in a behavior

Loosely speaking, nature is to nurture as _________ reinforcers are to ________ reinforcers.
a. positive; negative
b. secondary; primary
c. unconditioned; conditioned
d. primary; secondary

Answer:
d. primary; secondary

According to your text, the average child in the U. S. has viewed ________ of murders on network TV by the time he or she graduates from elementary school.
a. dozens
b. hundreds
c. thousands
d. tens of thousands

Answer:
c. thousands

Classical conditioning applies mainly to __________ behaviors. Operant conditioning applies primarily to __________.
a. existing; new behaviors
b. existing; existing behaviors as well
c. voluntary; reflexive behaviors
d. new; new behaviors as well

Answer:
a. existing; new behaviors

You don't receive a smile or a "thank you" each time you hold a door for the person behind you, just most of the time. Door-holding is reinforced on a(n) ___________ schedule.
a. continuous
b. partial
c. intermittent
d. both B and C

Answer:
d. both B and C

Which of the following alternatives illustrates classical conditioning?
a. Your mouth waters at the sight of a display of fresh chili peppers in the supermarket.
b. You no longer use a vending machine in the foyer of the computer science building on campus because it has sometimes failed to deliver your soda.
c. You don't know how best to organize the points you wish to make in one section of a political science term paper. The solution suddenly comes to you, though, after you work on your statistics homework for a while.
d. You squirm at the sight of an addict shooting up in a television movie.

Answer:
a. Your mouth waters at the sight of a display of fresh chili peppers in the supermarket.

71. Which of the following defines negative reinforcement?
a. Strengthening a response by removing an unpleasant stimulus
b. Strengthening a response by presenting a pleasant stimulus
c. Weakening a response by removing a pleasant stimulus
d. Weakening a response by presenting an unpleasant stimulus

Answer:
a. Strengthening a response by removing an unpleasant stimulus

Why might Tolman's latent learning results pose a problem for strict, Skinnerian views of learning?
a. The results suggest that direct reinforcement is not necessary for learning to occur.
b. The results suggest that internal processes may be necessary to fully explain learning.
c. The results suggest that insight is an important part of learning.

Answer:
d. both A and B

Negative reinforcement:
a. is the same thing as punishment
b. leads to an increase in the probability of a behavior
c. decreases the likelihood that a behavior will be performed
d. is the same thing as secondary reinforcement

Answer:
b. leads to an increase in the probability of a behavior

33. Jonas is a veteran of the war in Iraq. He suffers from PTSD. Now, back home in a quiet California neighborhood, he jumps when he hears a firecracker or a car backfire. In the terminology of classical conditioning, these sounds are best thought of as ________ stimuli.
a. neutral
b. unconditioned
c. second-order
d. conditioned

Answer:
d. conditioned

Alexis uses cocaine, which activates her sympathetic nervous system. Expecting her dealer, her hands shake and her heart pounds. Which alternative below correctly identifies the neutral stimulus, the CS, and the US?
a. neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—cocaine; US—cocaine
b. neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—knock on the door; US—pounding heart
c. neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—knock on the door; US—cocaine
d. neutral stimulus—cocaine; CS—knock on the door; US—cocaine

Answer:
c. neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—knock on the door; US—cocaine

Which of the following sequences correctly arranges the phases of the classical conditioning process, from first to last?
a. acquisition --> spontaneous recovery --> extinction
b. extinction --> spontaneous recovery --> acquisition
c. spontaneous recovery --> acquisition --> extinction
d. extinction --> acquisition --> spontaneous recovery
e. acquisition --> extinction --> spontaneous recovery

Answer:
e. acquisition --> extinction --> spontaneous recovery

In one study described in your text, Gorn (1982) showed participants pictures of pens of different colors. Some pen colors were paired with pleasant music; others were paired with unpleasant music. As a free gift, participants were more likely to choose the pen colors associated with pleasant music than the pen colors associated with unpleasant music. Which of the following alternatives correctly identifies the CS and the CR, respectively, in this study?
a. pen color; liking for pen
b. pen color; liking for music
c. type of music; liking for music
d. type of music; pen color

Answer:
a. pen color; liking for pen

One reason Carlos continues to work at his job is the check he receives every two weeks. Carlos' paycheck is a _________ reinforcer.
a. positive
b. primary
c. secondary
d. both A and C
Answer: d; Difficult

Answer:
d. both A and C

In classical conditioning, how are the neutral stimulus and the CS related?
a. They are not related; they are completely different stimuli.
b. They are the same thing; the terms are interchangeable.
c. The neutral stimulus becomes the CS.
d. The CS becomes a neutral stimulus.

Answer:
c. The neutral stimulus becomes the CS.

In a social dilemma _____ outcomes for one person lead to _____ outcomes for the group.
a. increased; increased
b. increased; decreased
c. decreased; increased
d. decreased; decreased

Answer:
b. increased; decreased

Which of the following defines positive punishment?
a. Strengthening a response by removing an unpleasant stimulus
b. Strengthening a response by presenting a pleasant stimulus
c. Weakening a response by removing a pleasant stimulus
d. Weakening a response by presenting an unpleasant stimulus

Answer:
d. Weakening a response by presenting an unpleasant stimulus

35. Based on your text's discussion, how might the classical conditioning processes underlying PTSD differ from those operating in more mundane circumstances?
a. PTSD reflects especially strong CS-US associations.
b. In PTSD, the CS-US associations are slow to extinguish.
c. PTSD reflects especially extensive stimulus generalization.
d. PTSD reflects a particularly high degree of stimulus discrimination.
e. both A and B

Answer:
e. both A and B

84. Dr. Arceneaux has developed several alternative plans to increase the number of online practice quizzes his students complete. Which plan below is INCORRECTLY matched with the reinforcement schedule?
a. 1 bonus point for every two online practice quizzes completed—fixed-ratio
b. 1 bonus point awarded every 2 weeks if two or more quizzes have been completed—fixed-interval
c. 1 bonus point awarded every now and then (about 2 weeks on average) if two or more quizzes have been completed recently—variable-ratio
d. None of these is incorrectly matched.

Answer:
c. 1 bonus point awarded every now and then (about 2 weeks on average) if two or more quizzes have been completed recently—variable-ratio

Learning that occurs internally and is expressed behaviorally only when there is sufficient motivation to do so is called _________ learning.
a. latent
b. covert
c. subliminal
d. manifest

Answer:
a. latent

You laugh out loud during a new automobile insurance commercial. Your laughter in response to the advertisement is a(n) __________; the insurance being advertised is a(n) ________.
a. UR; US
b. UR; CS
c. CR; US
d. CR; CR

Answer:
b. UR; CS

Many people want to have cheap gasoline and drive their cars as much as they want. But this behavior reduces the overall supply of gasoline and makes prices go up for everyone. This situation represents which of the following?
a. A decision matrix
b. A social dilemma
c. A reinforcement tradeoff
d. A conditioning paradox

Answer:
b. A social dilemma

Your text reports an experiment by Lepper et al. (1973) on the effects of reward. In the study, children were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: an expected reward condition, an unexpected reward condition, or a no reward condition. The children in the _____ condition were more likely to lose their initial interest in the task.
a. expected reward
b. unexpected reward
c. no reward
d. A and C.

Answer:
a. expected reward

Social dilemmas may be best understood in terms of
a. operant conditioning
b. latent learning
c. classical conditioning
d. observational learning

Answer:
a. operant conditioning

Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between learning on the one hand, and conditioning on the other?
a. Conditioning and learning are the same thing.
b. Conditioning is part of learning.
c. Learning is part of conditioning.
d. Learning and conditioning are unrelated.

Answer:
b. Conditioning is part of learning.

Paychecks and grades are delivered on a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
a. fixed-ratio
b. fixed-interval
c. continuous
d. variable-ratio

Answer:
b. fixed-interval

Which of the following scenarios best exemplifies spontaneous recovery?
a. Alexis is a former cocaine user. Now that she no longer uses, her hands no longer shake and her heart no longer pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.
b. Alexis uses cocaine. She no longer feels quite the same rush as she did when she first started using.
c. Alexis is a former cocaine user in recovery. After a relapse, though, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.
d. Alexis uses cocaine. Her heart pounds and her hands shake not only when she sees her dealer's car pull into her drive, but also when she sees a similar car pull into her drive.

Answer:
c. Alexis is a former cocaine user in recovery. After a relapse, though, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.

When Anderson and Bushman had research participants play either a violent or a non-violent video game, they found that participants who had played the violent game
a. expressed more aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors,
b. expressed more aggressive behaviors, but not more aggressive thoughts and feelings.
c. were also more altruistic.
d. also had higher self esteem

Answer:
c. were also more altruistic.

Which of the following scenarios is the best example of positive reinforcement?
a. Vanna fastens her seatbelt as soon as she gets in her car to stop the annoying alert sound.
b. Drake no longer cuts class now that his parents confiscated his iPod.
c. Maria now buys a different brand of cigarettes to get two packs for the price of one.
d. Nate no longer arrives late at work following a reprimand from his boss.

Answer:
c. Maria now buys a different brand of cigarettes to get two packs for the price of one.

In Pavlov's study, the US was _______; the neutral stimulus was _________; and, finally, the CS was _________.
a. meat; the bell; meat
b. the bell; the bell; meat
c. the bell; meat; meat
d. meat; the bell; the bell

Answer:
d. meat; the bell; the bell

In an advertisement that uses classical conditioning to persuade, the product or service being promoted is usually a(n):
a. unconditioned stimulus
b. conditioned stimulus
c. positive reinforcer
d. negative reinforcer

Answer:
b. conditioned stimulus

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