general name given to several Protestant groups who believed that only adults could make an informed decision about baptism (and thus entry into the Christian community) and who therefore refused to have their children baptized. Because of their belief in pacifism and that the Christian could not participate in civil affairs (by implication the separation of church and state) Luther, Calvin, and Catholics condemned and persecuted them.
Book of Common Prayer (1559)
official (parliament-approved) prayer book of the church of England, containing the prayers for all services, the forms for administration of the sacraments, and a manual for the ordination of deacons, priests, bishops
Lutheran doctrine of the Eucharist: after consecration, the bread and wine undergo a spiritual change, become the Real Presence, but are not transformed.
Diet of worms
series of imperial meetings (1521) at the bishops palace at Worms in the Rhineland where Luther defended his doctrines before the emperor Charles V. On 18 April Luther declared his final refusal to recant those doctrines, and on 26 May Charles V issued an imperial Edict condemning those doctrines.
church assembly theoretically representing all catholic countries and peoples, but that ideal was not achieved at the Lateran Council (1512-1517) nor at the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
term applied to English parliamentary laws passed early in Elizabeths reign that required conformity to the Church of England and uniformity of church worship.
German peasant revolts (1525)
widespread uprising of German country people protesting economic and social injustices, and justifying the revolt with (a misinterpretation of) Luthers doctrine.
official Roman Catholic agency founded in 1542 to combat international doctrinal heresy and to promote sounds doctrine on faith and morals.
papal statement (in document addressed to an individual) granting remission of priest-imposed penalty for sin (no one knew what penalty God would impose after death). Popular belief, however, held that an indulgence secured complete remission of all penalties for sin, before and after death.
The Institutes of the Christian Religion (definitive edition 1559)
Calvins formulation of Christian doctrine, which became a systematic theology for Protestantism.
members of the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola and approved by the papacy in 1540, whose goal was the spread of the Roman Catholic faith through humanistic schools and missionary activity. The Society stressed modern methods in its works, and by 1600 numbered over 8,500 members; it was not founded to oppose the Reformation.
Eucharistic doctrine espoused by Swiss reformer Zwingli whereby the Eucharist is a memorial of the Last Supper, but no changes occur in the elements.
clerical practice of holding more than one church benefice (or office) at the same time and enjoying the income from each.
offices, endowed by laypeople in many German towns, that required holders to give informed, well-prepared sermons; they helped pave the way for Protestant worship in which the sermon is the main part of the service.
Calvins teaching (based on his interpretation of Romans 8: 28-30, Ephesians 1: 3-14, and 2 Timothy 1:9) that by Gods decree some persons are guided to salvation, others to damnation; that God has called us not according to our works but according to His purpose and grace.
at the Diet of Speyer (1529) princes who favored church reforms along Lutheran lines protested decisions of the Catholic princes; hence, initially, Protestant meant Lutheran, but as other groups appeared, the term Protestant meant all non-Catholic Christian sects.
The Imitation of Christ
spiritual classic authored by Thomas a Kempis (c. 1380-1471) urging Christ as the model of Christian life and simplicity in living; widely read by laypeople, as well as by clergy.
Catholic doctrine of the Eucharist (ch. 14): that when the bread and wine (the elements) are consecrated by the priest at Mass, they are transformed into the actual Body and Blood of Christ.