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Psychology

Which of the following correctly describes the parts of the HPA axis?
a. Hippocampus - Pineal - Activating Hormone
b. Hypothalamus- Pineal - Adrenal
c. Hippocampus- Pituitary- Activating Hormone
d. Hypothalamus- Pituitary - Adrenal

Answer: D

When confronted with stressful events, Bobby keeps a positive outlook, does what he can to control the stressors, and tries to see the situation as a learning experience. Bobby is best described as:
a. hardy
b. high in self-esteem
c. optimistic
d. open to experience

Answer: A

Motivational tension that activates behavior to satisfy a goal is termed a(n):
a. drive
b. reflex
c. incentive
d. instinct

Answer: A

How often should you exercise?
a. At least 30 consecutive minutes, five times each week.
b. If you have the right abs machine, 3-5 minutes a day should do it.
c. Whenever there's nothing good on TV.
d. One to two hours each day.

Answer: A

Some people believe that homosexuality is a choice and that gay or lesbian parents or teachers may exert a harmful influence on children. To what extent is the empirical evidence reviewed in your text consistent with these claims?
a. It is wholly inconsistent with these claims.
b. It is somewhat inconsistent with these claims.
c. It paints a mixed picture with respect to these claims.
d. It is somewhat consistent with these claims.

Answer: A

During which portion of the human sexual response cycle are males unable to develop an erection?
a. the excitement stage
b. the plateau stage
c. the refractory period
d. the resolution stage

Answer: C

Similar gender differences in sexual interest are observed cross-culturally. This observation supports a(n) ________ perspective on the origin of these differences and suggests that they largely reflect ________.
a. social/cultural; nature
b. social/cultural; nurture
c. evolutionary; nature
d. evolutionary; nurture

Answer: C

According to the facial-feedback hypothesis,
a. we pay close attention to others' facial expressions.
b. our emotions activate specific facial-affect patterns.
c. our facial expressions may determine our emotional experience.
d. facial expressions are strongly influenced by our immediate environment and our larger cultures

Answer: C

In Schachter and Singer's classic experiment, participants who didn't have an explanation for their arousal took on the emotion expressed by the confederate. According to the interpretation of the results described in your text, we can say that these participants _____.
a. expressed their secondary emotions
b. misattributed their arousal
c. minimized their cognitive processing
d. underemphasized the role of the situation

Answer: B

What is homeostasis?
a. a theory of drive reduction
b. a built-in tendency to regulate bodily conditions
c. the psychological representation of a drive
d. the diffusion of fluids in a cell

Answer: B

According to your text, why, exactly, is self-efficacy associated with effective coping?
a. It promotes a positive outlook.
b. It permits the perception of control over stressors.
c. It is associated with high self-esteem.
d. It helps an individual recruit social support.

Answer: B

Which piece of evidence is correctly matched with its relevance to a particular theory of emotion?
a. Without arousal, our emotional experiences are weaker - James-Lange theory
b. We experience emotion before we experience arousal -Cannon-Bard theory
c. Different patterns of arousal produce different emotions - Schachter-Singer theory
d. The situation influences how we interpret our body's reactions - Cannon-Bard theory

Answer: A

Dr. DeRidder lesions, or damages, the ventromedial hypothalamus in one group of rats and the lateral hypothalamus in another group. What effect might he expect on the eating behavior of each group of rats?
a. Little effect should be seen in the eating behavior of either group of rats.
b. Both groups should stop eating, and perhaps eventually starve to death.
c. Both groups should begin overeating, and become grossly obese.
d. Rats with ventromedial lesions should begin overeating; rats with lateral lesions should stop eating.

Answer: D

Consider the fight-or-flight and the tend-and-befriend responses to stress. Of the two, the __________ is healthier, because it is not associated with the release of the stress hormone _______.
a. fight-or-flight; oxytocin
b. fight-or-flight; cortisol
c. tend-and-befriend; leptin
d. tend-and-befriend; cortisol

Answer:D

Brickman et al. (1978) examined the happiness of a group of lottery winners, as well as that of a group of individuals who had been paralyzed in accidents. What did they find?
a. Both groups were about as happy as people who had neither won the lottery nor suffered paralyzing accidents.
b. Both groups were actually happier than people who had neither won the lottery nor suffered paralyzing accidents.
c. Both groups were actually less happy as people who had neither won the lottery nor suffered paralyzing accidents.
d. The lottery winners were happier than people who had not won the lottery; the accident victims were less happy than were control participants.

Answer: A

In an argument, you back away from your conversational partner to indicate submission; you get "in their face" to communicate dominance. This example illustrates:
a. noverbal communication
b. proxemics
c. paralanguage
d. both A and B

Answer: D

Social support counteracts stress both by providing a source of tangible help and by helping us feel better about ourselves: these are the _______ and ______ effects of social support, respectively.
a. direct; indirect
b. direct; appreciation
c. immediate; indirect
d. immediate; appreciation

Answer: B

People aren't good at predicting how happy they will be in the future. Why is this?
a. People overestimate their emotional reactions to specific events.
b. As people's lives change, their bases for social comparisons change accordingly.
c. Despite the impact of specific events on people's lives, much of life remains the same as time goes by.
d. all of these

Answer: D

Misty's BMI is 27. Marnie's is 31. Misty is considered __________. Marnie is __________.
a. overweight; overweight as well
b. overweight; obese
c. obese; obese as well
d. normal weight; overweight

Answer:B

Which sequence correctly orders the phases of the human sexual response cycle, from first to last?
a. excitement  plateau  orgasm  resolution
b. excitement  resolution  plateau  orgasm
c. plateau  excitement  orgasm  resolution
d. plateau  resolution  excitement  orgasm

Answer: A

With respect to emotion, the fast pathway is to the slow pathway as __________ emotions are to _________ emotions.
a. basic; secondary
b. secondary; basic
c. primary; secondary
d. secondary; primary

Answer: A

If Schachter and Singer's had run another study in which the same procedure was used but the confederate acted as if he or she was romantically attracted to the participant, what would Schachter and singer have predicted?
a. The misinformed participants would have reported experiencing more love for the confederate
b. The informed participants would have reported experiencing more love for the confederate
c. The misinformed participants would have reported experiencing more anger toward the confederate
d. The informed participants would have reported experiencing more euphoria

Answer: A

Which of the following phrases best describes the short- and long-term effects of stress?
a. Stress is adaptive in both the short and the long term.
b. Stress is adaptive in the short term but detrimental over the longer term.
c. Stress is adaptive in the short term but has unpredictable effects over the longer term.
d. Stress is detrimental both in the short term and over the longer term.

Answer: B

Which of the following sequences correctly orders the stages of the general adaptation syndrome, from first to last?
a. alarm  exhaustion  resistance
b. alarm  resistance  exhaustion
c. resistance  alarm  exhaustion
d. resistance  exhaustion  alarm

Answer: B

Which stage of the General Adaptation model is correctly matched with an example?
a. alarm—drinking coffee and energy drinks to stay up late at night to write a paper.
b. resistance—realizing that a major term paper is due in 2 weeks.
c. exhaustion—coming down with a bad cold the day after you hand in a big paper.
d. None of these is correctly matched.

Answer: C

Which stage of the General Adaptation model is correctly matched with a description?
a. alarm—perceiving a threat, or a stressor
b. resistance—attempting to cope with the stressor
c. exhaustion—experiencing the negative physical and psychological consequences of stress
d. Each of the above are correctly matched.

Answer: D

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