This term describes the spirit of the age led by Andrew Jackson. During this period, more offices became elective, voter restrictions were reduced or eliminated, and popular participation in politics increased. The Democratic Party, led by Jackson, appealed to the new body of voters by stressing the belief in rotation in office, economy in government, governmental response to popular demands and decentralization of power.
Election of 1824 - "Corrupt Bargain"
No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay for President. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. John Quincy Adams won after Henry Clay gave his support to Adams, securing his Presidency. When Adams appointed Clay as his secretary of state, Jackson's supporters raged that a "corrupt bargain" had cheated Jackson of presidency.
Revolution of 1828
Jackson's election showed shift of political power to "the common man" when the government changed hands from Quincy Adams to Jackson. The results of the election show that the political center of gravity was shifting away from the conservative seaboard East toward the emerging states across the mountains. The revolution was peaceful, achieved by ballots.
(1824 - 1850) The New Democracy got more people involved in the government. There were also fewer voter restrictions and voter turn-out increased. Universal white manhood suffrage rather than old property qualifications.
Clay Vs. Calhoun
Dispute between two men, where Calhoun wanted slavery to be allowed in the western territories. Clay wanted North and South to reach an agreement, because he was sure that the nation would break apart, if not done so.
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.
Tariff of 1828
A protective tariff passed by the U.S. Congress that came to be known as the "Tariff of Abominations" to its Southern detractors because of the effects it had on the Antebellum Southern economy; it was the highest tariff in U.S. peacetime and its goal was to protect industry in the northern United States from competing European goods by increasing the prices of European products.
The practice of victorious politicians rewarding their followers with government jobs. Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale.
Peggy Eaton Affair
Social scandal (1829-1831) - John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake even before her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.
Hayne first responded to Daniel Webster's argument of states' rights versus national power, with the idea of nullification. Webster then spent 2 full afternoons delivering his response which he concluded by saying that "Liberty and Union, now and for ever, one and inseparable." Daniel Webster expressed the concept of the United States as one nation. The debate cemented the image of Daniel Webster, as a legendary defender of Constitution and Union
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
A term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.
Jackson had ordered the Cherokees to move from Georgia. The Cherokees went before the Supreme Court and pointed to the treaties with the Federal government.
John Marshall and the Court agreed with the Indians, but Jackson would not enforce the Court's decision. Cherokee were trying to adapt to white ways, but eventually got pushed out with Jackson's Indian removal.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas; more than 800 miles (1,287 km) to the Indian Territory. More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant, and often forcible, emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Responsible for distributing land and adequate supplies to anyone willing to farm. Maintained peace between the reservation and its neighbors. A school and other communal buildings were promised to the Indians by the treaty.
The mission in San Antonio where in 1836, Mexican forces under Santa Anna, besieged and massacred American rebels who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico.
Formed as an opposition party to the freemasonry party; against masons and secret monopolistic societies, believed they were conspiracies. Started political innovations such as the nominating conventions.
Election of 1832
Jackson v Clay. Political parties hold nominating conventions where the people decide who the nominee is. First time a third party was in an election (Anti-Masonic party).
The Whigs were originally colonists supporting independence. In the mid 1830s, the Whig Party opposed Jackson's strong-armed leadership style and policies. The Whigs promoted protective tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, and other measures that strengthened the central government. Reaching its height of popularity in the 1830s, the Whigs disappeared from the national political scene by the 1850s.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Van Buren Vs. Harrison
The election of 1840 was the first in which presidents appealed to crowds of voters; parties adopted banners, merchandise, and theme songs. Few may remember what "Tippecanoe and Tyler, too" actually meant. It was, in fact, a song praising Whig candidate William Henry Harrison, or "Old Tip," as he was known, and his running mate, John Tyler. Harrison was the hero of the battle of Tippecanoe, a clash in present-day Indiana between the Army and American Indian forces led by Tecumseh and a confederation of tribes. The tune also took aim at the incumbent Democratic president, Martin Van Buren, or "Little Van," as the Whig lyrics christened him. "Old Kinderhook," they dubbed him, in honor of Van Buren's birthplace of Kinderhook, N.Y. When supporters chanted it at rallies, the nickname stuck, and the universal affirmation "O.K." has remained in the lexicon ever since.