← Linguistics Chapter 6 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All semantics The study of the meaning of linguistics expressions, such as morphemes, words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. pragmatics The study of the effect of context on meaning. lexical semantics The branch of semantics that deals with the meaning of words. structural semantics The branch of semantics that deals with the meaning of utterances larger than words. referent The actual concrete item or concept to which the word refers. referential meaning The meaning of an utterance that describes the referent, an action, or a state of being. sense The extended meaning of a word or phrase that, in context, clarifies the referent. shifting referents Referents that are different for each speaker and each sentence. (Pronouns have shifting referents.) semantic properties The elements of meaning that make up the lexical entry of the word in the speaker's mind. semantic domain A set of words that share semantic properties. distinctive feature analysis The process of analyzing the semantic properties of a word. markedness As it relates to semantics means the concept that some words or morphemes are more common or usual than others. hyponyms More specific words that constitute a subclass of a more general word. synonyms Words that have similar meanings and share the same semantic properties. denotation The referential meaning of a word or morpheme, often the first meaning listed in a dictionary. connotation An affective meaning for a word or morpheme. homonyms Words that sound the same but have different meanings. polysemous Words that have more than one meaning. antonyms Words that are opposite in one of their semantic properties. complementary pairs Antonyms that negate each other. gradable pair Antonyms that are part of a larger set of related words and express the concept that one of them is more, whereas the other is less. relational opposites Antonyms that express a symmetrical relationship between two words. structural semantics The study of how the structure of sentences contributes to meaning. contradictions Utterances in which the semantic properties of one word unexpectedly do not match with those of another. oxymorons Phrases that combine contradictory words. anomalous utterances Utterances that include words in which the semantic properties don't match. metaphors Anomalous utterances in which two dissimilar items are symbolically considered to be similar. idioms Utterances in which there is a contradiction between the meaning of the parts of the utterance and the entire utterance. pragmatics The study of the effect of context on meaning. social meaning The information in an utterance about the social identity of the speaker. affective meaning The meaning of an utterance that conveys the emotions of the speaker. speech acts Actions performed by an utterance, such as daring, questioning, or betting. performative sentences The utterances that perform speech acts. discourse analysis The process of discovering the rules of discourse. discourse A series of connected utterances, such as a conversation, story, lecture, or any other communication event. new information Information that the speaker believes is being introduced to the listener for the first time. old (given) information Information that the speaker has previously introduced or believes the listener knows. deixis Refers to words that shift reference, that change meaning according to the context and/or the speaker. presupposition The set of assumptions that the speaker makes about the listener's knowledge or circumstances. These assumptions are necessary in order to make an utterance meaningful. greeting rituals A special kind of discourse that are not at all important for the information they convey, but are important for their social function. maxims of conversation The cultural expectations that guide people when they are conversing. cooperative principle The basis for the maxims of conversation, and assumes that each person is trying in good faith to communicate and understand. Maxim of Quantity Say neither more nor less than is required. Maxim of Quality Say only what you believe to be the truth. Maxim of Relevance Say only what is appropriate for the topic. Maxim of Manner Be brief, concise, and clear.