permanant waves that have a 7.0 or neutral pH; because of their higher pH, they process at room tempurature, do not require the added heat of a hair dryer, process more quickly, and produce firmer curls than true acid waves.
"cold waves" have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) as the reducing agent and process at room temperature without the addition of heat.
compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur.
ammonium thiolycolate (ATG)
active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanants.
position of the tool in relation to its base section, determined by the angles at which the hair is wrapped.
"protective base cream" oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing.
angle at which the rod in relation to itys base section' base placement is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
relaxers that require the applicattion of protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer.
subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod is normally placed on each base section.
basic permanent wrap
"straight set wrap" perm wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal-sized bases; all the base sections are horizontal, and are the same length and width of the perm rod.
perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair end like an envelope.
bricklay permanent wrap
perm wrap similar to actual technique of bricklay; base sections are offset from each other row by row, to prevent noticeable splits and to blend the flow of the hair.
chemical hair relaxing
a process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into straighter or smoother form.
chemical texture service
hair service that causes a chemical change that alters the natural wave pattern of the hair.
perm rods that have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends.
croquignole perm wrap
perms in which the hair strands are wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers.
curvature permanent wrap
perm wrap in which parting and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head.
double flat wrap
perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped.
"piggyback wrap" a wrap technique whereby extra-long hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft and another rod is used to wrap the remaining hair strand in the same direction.
"end wraps" absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods.
perm activated by an outside heat source, usually conventional hood-type hair dryer.
creates an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the the waving solution and speeds up processing.
glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG)
main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions.
half off-base placement
base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees or perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned half off its base section.
an acid-alkali neutralization reaction that neutralizes (deactivates) the alkaline residues left in the hair by a hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair and the scalp; hydroxide relaxer neutralization does not involve oxidation or rebuild disulfide bonds.
very strong alkalis with pH over 13, the hydroxide ion is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers.
long, coiled polypeptide chains.
process by which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair; they remove sulfer atom from a disulfide bond and convert it into a lanthionine bond.
"circle rod" tool that is usually about 12 in long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod.
perms that use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium thioglycolate; they have a low pH.
metal hydroxide relaxers
ionic compunds formed by a metal (sodium, ptassium or lithium) which is combined with oxygen and hydrogen/
relaxers that do not require application of a protective base cream.
conditioners with an acidic pH that restore the hair's natural pH after a hydroxide relaxer and prior to shampooing.
base control in which the hair is wrapped at a 45 degrees below the center of the base section, so the rod is positioned on its base.
base control in which the hair is wrapped at a 45 degree angle beyond perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned on its base.
"end bonds" chemical bonds that join together, end to end in long chains, to form polypeptide chains.
a twp-step process whereby the hair undergoes a physical changed caused by wrapping the hair on perm rods, and then the hair undergoes a chemical change caused by the application of permanent waving soultion and neutralizer/
long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.
single flat wrap
perm wrap that is similar to double flat wrap but uses only end papers, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped.
soft bender rods
tool about 12 in long with a uniform diameter along the entire length.
soft curl permanent
combination of thio relaxer and a thio permanent that is wrapped on large rods to make existing curl larger and looser.
spiral perm wrap
hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod, which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, similar to the stripes on a candy cane.
perm rods that are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area.
stops the action of a permanent wave solution and rebuilds the hair in its new curly form.
use the same ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) that is used in permanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher pH (above 10).
perm that uses an ingredient other than ATG as the primary reducing agent, such as cysteamine or mercaptamine.
true acid waves
have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 and requires heat to process; they process more slowly than alkaline waves, and do not usually produce as firm a curl as alkaline waves.
the measurement of the thickness of a liquid that affects how fluids flow.
wrapping technique that uses zigzag parting to divide base areas.
refers that require the application of protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer.
ammonia free waves
perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporte as readily as ammonia so ther is very little odor associated with their use