A city on the Rhone River in southeastern France. From 1309-1377 it was the residence of the popes during their exile from Rome and was papal property until the French Revolution
Historians' term for the monarchies in France, England, and Spain from 1450 to 1600. The centralization of royal power was increasing within more or less fixed territorial limits. (p. 414)
This early civilization included Mexico and Central America and it was based on sedentary agriculture and the cultivation of corn and food production.
A people who invaded central Mexico, ruled by a military class; had a capital city of Tula; influenced the Maya; introduced the working of gold and silver; spread the worship of their god Quetzalcoatl; destroyed in the AD 1100s
an ancient Mayan city located on the Yucatan Peninsula
a member of the Nahuatl people who established an empire in Mexico that was overthrown by Cortes in 1519
They found such a place on a small island in Lake Texcoco, at the center of the valley. There, in 1325, they founded their city, which they named Tenochtitlan. The Aztecs controlled an extensive trade network, which brought many products from faraway regions to the capital at Tenochtitlan.
Spanish soldier who conquered the Aztecs
Aztec chieftan; encountered Cortes and the Spanish and saw that they rode horses; Montezuma assumed that the Soanush were gods. He welcomed them hospitably, but the explorers soon turned on the natives and ruled them for three centuries.
Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco.
a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
the mansion of the lord of the manor, worked by peasants
a person who lived on and farmed a lords land in feudal times
an economic system based on money rather than barter
economic system in which people invest in trade or goods to make profits
business associations that dominated medieval towns; they passed laws, levied taxes, built protective walls for the city, etc. Each guild represented workers in one occupation such as weavers, bakers, brewers, sword makers, etc.
a belief that rejects the orthodox tenets of a religion
Sacred rituals of the Roman Catholic Church
the learned profession acquired by specialized courses in religion (usually taught at a college or seminary)
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office