Anthro Exam 2

134 terms by ccp11 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

cultural evolution

a model for the development of society that delineates a sequence of cultural change over time

unilineal evolution

early theoretical school that postulated that all cultures proceeded through a series of succesive stages

neoevolutionary model

a model of cultural evolution based on types of technology and food-procurement strategies, and the sociocultural adaptations that resulted from them

multilinear evolution

an evolutionary model of culture emphasizing different development patterns for societies in different habitats

oldowan tools

a very early african tool-making tradition associated with the first members of homo

acheulean hand axes

part of an african and european tool tradition associated with homo erectus and homo ergaster. the tradition also includes cleavers and some flake tools

ecological model

a model that views a culture as part of a larger global ecological system with each aspect of the system interacting with all of the other parts

cultural ecology

the study of the processes by which a society adapts to its environment

optimal-foraging model

a model that aims at understanding how foragers optimize the gathering of food

evolutionary-ecological model

a paradigm of human culture that combines both the neoevolutionary and ecological perspectives

technology

the knowledge, tools, and skills used by humans to manipulate their environments

traditions

cultural choices consistently made by a society and practiced generation to generation

foraging

a food-procurement strategy that involves collecting wild plant and animal foods

nomadic

most foragers are _________

carrying capacity

the maximum population that a habitat can sustain

bands

a type of society common in foraging groups and marked by egalitarian social structure and lack of specialization

family band

a type of band organization consisting of nuclear family units that move independently within an area. joins others when resources are plentiful;travels alone at other times

patrilocal band

a type of band consisting of related males and their wives and children who stay together and forage as a group

reciprocity

a form of exchange that involves the mutual giving and receiving of food and other items between people who are socially equal

generalized reciprocity

institutionalized gift giving and exchange between close kin; accounts are not kept, and there is no expectation of immediate return

balanced reciprocity

exchange and gift giving with the expectation of a return of equal value within a reasonable period of time.

negative reciprocity

an economic exchange aimed at receiving more than is given

egalitarian

refers to members of a society having equal access to status, power, and wealth within the same category, such as age or gender.

low energy budget

the expenditure of minimum energy to acquire the basic needs for survival

division of labor

the manner of dividing work based on criteria such as age or gender

horticulture

a food-procurement strategy based on crop production without soil preparation, fertilizers, irrigation, or use of draft animals

slash-and-burn

the removal of plant materials by cutting and burning preparatory to planting

pastoralism

a food-producing strategy based on herding

nomadic pastoralism

a herding adaptation that makes the most available forage for animals by frequent habitat moves

transhumance

a variety of pastoralism in which herds are moved seasonally

agriculture

a subsistence strategy based on intensive, continuous use of land for the production of plant foods. it typically includes one or more of the following: cultivation of soils, use of fertilizers, and irrigation

cheifdom

a type of society with an office of chief, most commonly hereditary, social ranking, and redistributing economy

stratified society

a society with unequal access to resources within groups of the same gender and status

redistribution

a system of exchange in which wealth is reallocated; found in chiefdom and state societies

market exchange

the trading of goods and services through the use of currency

barter

exchange of products that does not involve currency

commodity money

currency in the form of valued objects such as shells or gold

flat money

paper currency backed by a nation-state's claim of its value

exogamy

a cultural rule that dictates that one must marry outside of a designated group

nuclear family

a married couple and their children

endogamy

a cultural rule that dictates that one must marry within a designated group

levirate

a marriage custom in which a widow marries her deceased husbands brother

sororate

a marriage custom in which a widower marries a sister of his deceased wife

status

a person's position in society

role

the culturally assigned behaviors and expectations for a person's social position

monogamy

a form of marriage in which one woman is married to one man

polygamy

multiple-spouse marriage

polygyny

marriage of one man to two or more women

polyandry

marriage of one woman to two or more men

sister exchange

a common type of marriage consisting of the marriage of cross cousins. men exchange their sisters as marriage partners

cross cousin

ego's mother's brother's child and father's sister's child

parallel-cousin

ego's mother's sister's child and father's brother's child

bridewealth

a form of marriage finance in which valuable gifts are given by the groom's kin to the bride's kin

dowry

a form of marriage finance in which valuable gifts are given by the bride's kin to the groom's kin

half-marriage

a custom among the yurok of northwestern california and other patri-centerd groups in which a man pays partial bridewealth and lives with the bride's family and the couple's children belong to the wife and her family

family of orientation

a personal childhood family, where enculturation takes place

consanguineal relatives

kin related by blood

family of procreation

a kin group consisting of an individual and the individual's spouse and children

affinal kin

kin related by marriage

kinship system

the complexity of a culture's rules governing the relationships between affinal and consanguineal kin

extended family

two or more nuclear families that are related by blood and who reside in the same household, village, or territory

household

a common residence-based economic unit

neolocal residence

a postmarriage residence rule that requires the bride and groom to set up an independent household away from both sets of parents

patrilocal residence

a postmarriage residence rule that requires the bride and groom to live in or near the residence of the groom's father

virilocal residence

the custom of living with the husband's relatives after marriage

shabano

a yanomamo village

matrilocal residence

a postmarriage residence rule that requires the bride and groom to live in or near the residence of the bride's mother

uxorilocal residence

the custom of living with the wife's relatives after marriage

matrifocal residence

a residence group consisting of a woman and her children residing without co-residence of a husband

avunculocal residence

a postmarriage residence rule that requires the bride and groom to reside with or near the groom's mother's brother.

bilocal residence

the condition in which a newly married couple reside either with or near the groom's parents or the bride's parents.

matri-patrilocal residence

a temporary residence form in which the groom moves to live with the bride's family until bridewealth payments are complete and the couple take up permanent patrilocal residence

role

the culturally assigned behaviors and expectations for a person's social position

status

a person's position in society

ascribed status

the status a person is given at birth and over which that person has no control

achieved status

a status position that is earned through an individual's skills, actions, and accomplishments

descent group

a group of people who share identity and come from a common ancestor

lineage

a unilineal descent group that traces its consanguineal relatives back to a common ancestor

patrilineage

a unilineal descent group passed on through males and traced to a common male ancestor

agnates

members of a patrilineage

matrilineage

a unilineal descent group with membership passed on through females and traced to a common female ancestor

bilateral descent

descent that is traced equally through both mother and father

kindred

a term associated with bilateral descent in which relatives calculate their degree of relationship to Ego. in a ______, only siblings share the exact same set of relatives

double descent

a descent system with two separate lines of descent that are both recognized at the same time

ambilineal descent

a unilineal descent system in which some members of the society acquire and pass on descent affiliation through females, whereas others do so through males.

clan

a descent group consisting of two or more lineages that trace their origin to a mythical ancestor

totem

mythical ancestor or symbol of a clan

phratry

a group of two or more clans that have a tie to one another, often based on historical relationship; obligations and rights are expected between clans in this relationship

moiety

an association that divides a society in half

segmentary lineage

a descent group consisting of sublineage sets

sodality

a group that crosscuts a society and whose membership is based on common interest rather than kinship or residence

kinship term

a word that designates a social relationship between individuals who are related by blood or marriage

bifurcate

the distinction within kinship systems where father's side and mother's side of the family are labeled and treated differently, splitting mother's side of the family from father's side of the family

fictive kin

unrelated family friends who are addressed by kin terms

psychological anthropology

the study of the relationship between culture and personality

sex

the biological aspect of being female, male, or other, assigned at birth based on external genitalia

sexual dimorphism

the biological and behavioral differences between males and females

gender role

the task and behavior assigned by a culture to each sex

gender

the sociocultural construct of masculine and feminine roles and the qualities assigned to these roles

heterosexuality

sexual attraction between members of the opposite sex

homosexuality

sexual attraction between members of the same sex

power

the ability to influence or cause people or groups to do certain things that they would not do otherwise

authority

the exercise of legitimate power; the right to rule invented by members of the community in its leaders

tribe

a type of society marked by egalitarian social structure, based on horicultural and pastoral economies, and integrated by various types of kinship organizations and sodalities

headmen

types of leaders found in tribal and chiefdom societies whose leadership is based on persuasive power

big men

alternate term for headmen common in melanesian societies

nation-state

a group that shares a common cultural heritage, territory, and legitimate political structure

stratified society

a society with unequal access to resources within the same gender and status group

stratified state society

a society in which institutions are based on coercive power and authority. inequality exists within social groupings

social stratification

ascribed and achieved differences between two classes within a society

class

a group of people who have a similar relationship to wealth, power and prestige

caste

a ranked group with membership determined at birth

social control

a process involving a structure and mechanisms to ensure that people do not violate the society's accepted forms of behavior

deviance

the violation of an ideal pattern of behavior within a society

law

the cultural rules formulated by a society and backed up by sanctions

supernatural belief

a belief that transcends the observable, natural world

supernatural beings

invisible beings that exhibit form, personality, attitudes, and powers

supernatural forces

unseen powers that are not personified and may be manipulated to achieve good or evil

polytheistic

a belief system consisting of many supernatural beings of approximately equal power

monotheistic

a belief system that focuses on one all-powerful supernatural being

mana

an impersonal supernatural force that flows in and out of people and objects

magic

the techniques used to manipulate supernatural forces and beings

shaman

a part-time practitioner of the supernatural who has special powers to mediate between the supernatural world and the community

imitative magic

a type of magic based on the notion that working magic on an image of an animal or person will cause the same effect on the actual animal or person

contagious magic

a type of magic based on the idea that something that has contact with a person or animal contains some essence of that being and that magic performed on the item will have the same effect as if performed on the being

priest

a full-time supernatural practitioner who is part of a bureaucracy

ritual

behavior that is formalized, is regularly repeated, and has symbolic content

rites of passage

rituals associated with the social movement of an individual from one culturally defined role and status to another during the passage from birth to death

rites of intensification

rituals, often seasonal, that reinforce group solidarity, cultural values, and group social and political status relationships

revitalization movement

an organized movement, which occurs during times of change, that involves perceived loss of traditional cultural values.

prophet

a person, usually charismatic, who has had direct communication with a god. often receives a message that articulates a plan of action for the group

parietal art

art executed on permanent features such as cave walls, rock shelters, and large blocks of rock

mobile art

art forms that are not fixed to any place and can be moved or carried

ethnomusicology

the study of the music of a contemporary society within the context of that society

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set