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Psychology Test #2

Cognitive Control

-Ability to guide thinking and actions despite distraction
-Ability to guide attention
-Ability to pursue complex behavior

Executive functioning

-Frontal lobe
-Ability to exert control over mental processing

Problem Solving

Involves thoughts and actions to achieve a desired goal.

How many types of problems are there and who came up with them?

Three basic types of problems (Greeno, 1978)

Problems of inducing structure...

Series completion and analogy problems

Problems of arrangement...

-String problem
-Anagrams

Problems of transformation...

-Hobbits and orcs problem
-Water jar problem

Problem Solving Strategies: Algorithm

Step by step procedure to solving a problem that guarantees a solution

Problem Solving Strategies: Heuristic

Rules of thumb or mental shortcuts that reduce the number of operations and allow one to solve problems more easily and quickly

Heuristic: Working Backward

Starting at the solution.

Heuristic: Analogies:

Strategy for finding a similarity between the new situation and old, familiar situation

Heuristic: Forming Subgoals:

Breaking the overall problem into separate parts that, when completed in order, will result in a solution.

Problem Solving Strategies: Insight

Sudden realization of answer. Eureka!!

Barriers to Effective Problem Solving: Irrelevant information

Getting bogged down in information that doesn't matter.

Barriers to Effective Problem Solving: Mental Set

The tendency to continue to use the same old method even though another approach might be better.

Barriers to Effective Problem Solving: Confirmation bias

We often search for information that confirms our ideas.

Functional fixedness:

Our failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems.

Decision Making:

The process of considering alternatives and choosing among them.

Decision Making-Availability heuristic:

Guessing the probability of something based on how quickly and easily information bearing on the decision comes to mind.

ex:Smoking doesn't harm unborn babies because my cousin smoked and her baby was fine.

Decision Making-Representative heuristic:

Guessing the probability of something based on how closely a new object is judged to resemble our existing stereotype of that object.

ex:You are tall, therefore you must be a basketball player.

Conjunction fallacy:

The odds of two uncertain events together are greater than the odds of a single event.

Anchoring effect:

Estimating based on a known standard
My friend was robbed yesterday, therefore crime rates are very high!

Making Decisions Under Pressure:

-Search for possibilities is reduced under uncertain conditions
-Less time -> BAD DECISIONS
-More emotion -> BAD DECISIONS

Metacognition (Thinking about thinking): Reviewing Memories:

-Considering past learning in order to understand events in the present
-Tip of the tongue: when we struggle to "know" what we know we know

Metacognition (Thinking about thinking): Self-Reflection:

Thinking about your own identities in order to evaluate and modify our behavior based on past experience.

Metacognition (Thinking about thinking): Theory of Mind:

Thinking about another person's feelings or intentions.

Theory of Mind:

-Children develop theory of mind gradually.
-Other forms of metacognition do not emerge until later.

Cognition:

Mental processes of thinking and knowing.

language:

a set of symbols used to communicate.

Language Production:

the process of using movement to produce speech. Can also encompass signing by using hand signals.

Language Comprehension:

The process of understanding spoken, written, or signed language.

Phoneme:

the smallest unit of language, an individual sound.

Phonology:

the study of how individual sounds or phonemes are used to produce language.

Morpheme:

the smallest unit of meaning in language.

Semantics:

the study of how meaning in language is constructed of individual words and sentences.

Lexical Meaning:

dictionary meaning of a word.

Syntax:

the grammatical positioning of words in a sentence.

Pragmatics:

the practical aspects of language usage, including speech pace, gesturing, and body language.

Nonverbal communication:

body language

Babbling:

babies' production of meaningless sounds.

telegraphic speech:

speech that consists of minimalistic sentences; characterizes early toddlerhood and is the first evidence of sentence formation.

Critical Period:

a time during the development after which we cannot develop certain capabilities.

Sensitive Period:

A time during development after which it becomes more difficult to develop certain capabilities.

Child-directed speech:

speech characterized by exaggerated emotional responses and a slower pace that is common among caregivers communicating with babies and young children.

Overregularization:

The process by which elementary school children apply learned grammatical rules to improperly "correct" an irregular verb.

Broca's area:

a region in the frontal lobes near the motor cortex that is important for speech production.

Broca's Aphasia:

a neurological condition arising from damage to Broca's area where the patient is unable to produce coherent speech.

agrammatism:

a neurological condition arising from damage to a brain region just anterior to Broca's area where the patient is incapable of using words in grammatical sequence.

Wernicke's Area:

a brain region located in the temporal lobe that is important for language comprehension.

Wernicke's Aphasia:

a neurological condition associated with damage to Wernicke's area where a person cannot understand language.

Mental Imagery:

picturing things in your mind.

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