Architecture Test 2

117 terms by slpotter 

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Transept

the arms of the cross where the chapels are

Apse

top of the cross, the hoilest location location of the church, where the altar is.

Altar

"table" where a priest conducts mass.

Nave

main section for the public in attendance.

Narthex

enclosure before entry, like a porch in Roman temples

centrally planned building

a building built around a central point, usually round, but not always.
- based on Greek or Etruscan tomb structures.
- used at first for mausoleums and baptistries, later for churches in Eastern Orthodox Christianity.

The Interior of "Church"of Santa Costanza, Rome, 350 CE

- Circular colonade with round arches
- Constantine's daughter in the center
- The church is literally a tomb to house remains of a saint.
- Christianity promises its followers a better life after death, to reserect the soul - why it is so popular with the poor.

ambulatory

a passageway for ritual walking in a church or monastery
- at Santa Constanza it functions as side aisles do in basilica form of church- usually circular.

San Vitale, Ravenna, 547 CE

Created by Justinian as 1st official church (built to be an actual church)
- 1st appearance of a buttress, doesn't catch on for 600 years.
- Apse built into it, not added
- planned as a church, a palace chapel, Justinian's personal church
- drawback- confusing interior,
- when looking back from apse, cant see the entrance
- Narthex is off kilter from apse
- Byzantine arch is confusing
- Denial arch- denial that wall will hold up.
- one must belong to the faith to understand where the exit is.

Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, 537 CE

- A palace chapel for court and clergy
- Commissioned by Justinian to celebrate suppression of revolt
- Architects: Anthemius and Isidoros.
- First dome fell
- from exterior, building makes no sense: minarets added later, as were buttresses, Atrium was removed.
- pendentives can be seen under dome.
- dome has clerestory
- double rows colonade "like a lantern of lights"
each window requires buttress on either side.

Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, 537 CE

- A palace chapel for court and clergy
- Commissioned by Justinian to celebrate suppression of revolt
- Architects: Anthemius and Isidoros.
- First dome fell
- from exterior, building makes no sense: minarets added later, as were buttresses, Atrium was removed.
- pendentives can be seen under dome.
- dome has clerestory
- double rows colonade "like a lantern of lights"
each window requires buttress on either side.
- spaces irrational and confusing.
- converted to mosque

pendentive

a curved triangular panel in ceiling that smooths transition from joined arches to a rounded dome above them
- required when dome rests on a square shape, not a drum.

Monastery church of Hosios Loukos, Greece, 1020 CE

- very few large scale constructions during mid to late Byzantine.
- outside very decorative many materials used for this effect. colored brick, stone, recesses.
- Greek cross plan all spoke equal in length.
- Simple juxtaposition of geometric forms
- Church of Virgin on N. Kathohkon is main space on S.

Squinch

stacked semi arches to connect dome to square building.
- Hagia sophia

Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 690 CE

Great Mosque, Samarra, Iraq 847 CE

Muslims have no earlier architecture traditions-earliest followers were nomads, not sedentary.

mosque

Islamic religious structure
- small ones for daily prayer by individual and small groups
- large ones are for weekly service.

mirhab

niche in qibla wall to indicate it is the direction to face to pray towards mecca

alfiz

rectangular frame of the new horseshoe round arch

Arches of the great mosque, Cordoba, Spain 786 CE

MIrhab of Great Mosque, Cordoba, Spain 786

uses arches and interior chambers to create screen between the sahn and mihrab

Masjid-i-shah Mosque entrance, Iran 1630

-example of iwan mosque with muqarna vaults
-a qibla iwan, the one facing the mosque entrance across the courtyard.

iwan

vaulted and domed volume walled on 3 sides and open on the other.

muqarna vaults

type of corbelled vault, niches stacked in tiers
- muqarna means "stalactite vault"
- used for decorative effect - looks like a honey comb

bazaar

permanent enclosure market place, often a converted street with stalls or shops along both sides

Blue Mosque of Suleymah the Magnificent, by sinan, Istanbul 1550

Hall of 2 sisters, Alhambra, Granada, Spain 13th century

Square base rises into octagonal drum with muqarna squinches smoothing their transition, forming their shape.

Model of Monastery at St. Gall, Switzerland, 820

- Drawn from plan for Benedictine monasteries
- church at center of community
- Benedictine monasteries organized religious life around other- -schools, agriculture, political
- first manifestation of westwork on a church

St. Michael's, Hildesheim, Germany, 1001

- Palace chapel for Ottos I-III - mostly rebuilt
- period where emperor and king chooses pope, cardinal, or bishop.
- has 2 entrances on each side isle, and 2 apses- -convenience? 7-9 prayer calls a day
- Extensive use of round arch and columns indicate awareness of Roman Architecture

Interior St. Denis, Paris, 1137

- Ambulatory and chapels round apse
- Abbot Suger designed the choir area using ribbed vaults and pointed arches
- Spaces between arches and piers is able to be opened for windows because it has been freed from load bearing functions

West facade, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France 1140

...

Interior nave, chartres cathedral, Chartres france 1140

- Shows ribbed vaulting, pointed arches compund piers
- space appears to be soaring

second coming of christ, tympanum at chartres Cathedral, Chartres France 1140

- entrance portal on west work wall - two other portals
- trumeau have become huge no longer a single column - more a compound pier
- judgement day image of christ - 4 evangelists, 24 elders, no sinners or good souls

Rose window, north transcept, Chartres Cathedral Chartres France 1250

...

Nave, Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, France 1243

- much narrower church side-to-side
- no transept - appears taller
- piers and arches become thin
- Walls almost totally glass
- Called "Rayonnant" style - ray-like in honor of light of heavens
- stars painted on ceiling are king's symbol of "fleur-de-lys"

Ceiling, Chapter House, Salisbury Cathedral, England, 1263

- Built in octagonal shape - english preference
- has a central pier that supports the middle of roof
- joined to walls by fan vaulting

* Pisa Cathedral, Pisa, Italy, 1053

- no westwork, tympanum - common to Northern Romanesque Churches.
- 3 front entrances - not one- for nave and side isles
- decor mostly from arcades of columns around whole building
- basilica style
- different colored marble
- round arches and mixyure of column types in arcades and columnades
- small narthex, flat wooden ceiling inside.

Masaccio, The Holy Trinity, Santa Maria Novella, Florence 1428

- Brunelleschi is thought to have helped design the perspective
- Early example of mathmatical perspective
- optically realistic interior space - like the Romans
- rely on Greek texts for inspiration (plato and Pythagoras) to divide space rationally- mathmatics and geometry and even musical comp.
-buildings can be described in simple ratios 1:1, 1:2, 2:3, 3:4
- expresses harmony in God's world

Anonymous, The Ideal city, 15th century

vanishing point at door of baptistry - point of salvation

Brunelleschi, St. Mary of the Flower, Florence 1420

-Ogival Dome- rotated pointed arch
- octagonal drum, 24 ribs from drum to an oculus
- 8 additional ribs in concentric rings
- exterior terra cotta tile, interior plaster
lantern at top of dome as cupola - lets in light
-

Brunelleschi, interior of Santo Spirito, Florence, 1436

- centrally planned church
- design to modules
- each grion-vaulted bay between columns measures equally front to back

**Michelozzo, Palazzo Medici, Florence 1444

Michelozzo, Palazzo Medici, Florence, 1444
- Brunelleschi is the source for its innovations
- Façade has graduated textures:
- rusticated at ground
- smooth in center, but blocks still distinguished by mortar
- ashlar at top (smooth with little distinction between stones)
- This is called tripartite division
- Why gradations in stone?
- to divide the exterior into sections, corresponding to sections of a column: base, shaft, capital
- roughest at public, earthy, street level, smoothest at most 'refined' and private level
- Divisions are reinforced by a course of stonework: a band of stones that wrap around building and either project out slightly, or in some way mark the transition from one section to another
- This has first use of a notable cornice roof since antiquity (8 feet overhang)
- The cornice is trimmed underneath with a dentil course
- Building, which is square, has an interior surrounding a square courtyard
- First level is for banking business
- Second level is for family rooms for private meeting ('piano nobile')
- Third level is for private bedrooms
- Many decorative motifs come from Romanesque architecture ('serliana' windows)

Alberti, Palazzo Rucellai, Florence, 1446

- Alberti wants to bring order back to buildings, to follow Roman architecture more closely
- Some criticize his buildings as chilly exercises
- This mimics ascension of orders on Colosseum, but this is a residence
- Alberti wants to bring order back to buildings, to follow Roman architecture more closely
- Provides a plinth reminiscent of stylobate - this is purely decorative
- Organizes interior with a host of new concerns for health

Alberti, west façade of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, 1458

- Architects found it hard to organize façade created by basilica form into a classical and geometrically resolved surface
- Alberti keeps the pointed arches and use of multicolored marble common at the time
- But he reintroduces pilasters here
- Church façade uses square and circle as basic unit of organization
- Triangular roofs over aisle doors point directly up to edge of central triangular roof end (edges of pediment)
- This is the first Renaissance-style church façade, even though he preserved some Gothic aspects
- Scrolls on either side of higher nave section is a first, then imitated throughout Italy

**Bramante, Tempietto, San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502

- Centrally planned building
- Was to originally have been surrounded by a circular cloister
- 2-story cylinder temple
- Doric capitals, circular entablature, balustrade
- Interior is based around location of crucifixion of St. Peter (denoted by a large circular spot on floor within)
- Circular cloister surrounding a circular building would be an ideal Greek Platonic Form, but in the context of an early Christian building type
- So this is an attempt to fuse classical with Christian
- based around location of crucifixion of St. Peter (spot on floor)

da Sangallo & Michelangelo, Palazzo Farnese, Rome, 1530

- Only rustication is at the side edges, & all windows are classically framed
- Uses quoins on façade edges
- Michelangelo finished building, added top floor & cornice, and large block entrance
- Accomplishes tripartite division in several ways (color of walls, string courses of stone, different over-window pediments)

Michelangelo, Laurentian Library Steps, San Lorenzo, Florence, 1524

- Compression of classical elements within space - integral connection between classical architectural elements and their original function is not evident, but this is probably due to Michelangelo having to adapt those forms to a tall narrow foyer while making it a lively, dramatic space
- Many unresolved elements that add tension: stairs bow out at bottom, windowframes at bottom use pediments from Pantheon but have no window opening, columns are recessed into niches, above brackets

Michelangelo, St. Peter's, Vatican City, 1546

- Bramante's original design used a central-plan Greek cross form, not old basilica cross form - it was planned with domed apses around, & a large wide dome above crossing
- Michelangelo uses colossal order all around church's exterior to unify façade, frame it, and strengthen it
- Michelangelo thus gives whole building a mass Bramante hadn't planned
- Unifies it also by extending a cornice all around the exterior
- Gets rid of Bramante's plan to imitate Pantheon's broad lower dome
- Instead emulates Brunelleschi's high ribbed dome with lantern atop
- Does this out of concern that lower walls can't support dome's weight

*Palladio, Palazzo Chiericati, Vicenza, 1550

- Early work, trying to reproduce a Roman-style urban villa
- Its façade is divided in 3, but not the usual tripartite division
- Typical of Renaissance concern for symmetry, proportion, regularity of rhythm, and use of geometry
- Fronts onto a piazza, & was intended to be part of a wraparound colonnade around piazza
- Building's axis is parallel to street, due to its narrow lot width

Palladio, Villa Barbaro, Maser, 1557

- Combines residence with farm use (stables, storage & work areas)
- Biggest innovation: adding a temple front (columns, pediment) to the house
- He understood Vitruvius to say Greek temples had derived from houses
- Palladio develops a classical idiom solely for residences from the many existing public Roman buildings that were their sources, but these don't have an axis perpendicular to the street or entrance, but parallel to it
- Intended that as many rooms as possible would have a view onto the estate, so building is parallel to it
- Later architects will embellish upon Palladio's villa-and-stable plan to develop the country mansion form

Palladio, Villa Rotonda, Vicenza, 1566

- Built for entertaining and also for agricultural work
- Square plan with 2-story circular rotunda in middle inside
- Uses a Pantheon-like portico on each side, low Pantheon-like dome on top
- Main entrance floor is the piano nobile in his residences
- Palladio notes he made loggias on each side so the beautiful views can be enjoyed from everywhere, but each one different - so there are 4 belvederes - so setting is crucial (in this case, atop a hill)
- Width of steps & their retaining walls is adjusted to fit each view
- All rooms arranged around central atrium, main ones on each corner
- Could draw a perfect circle that touches each corner of building & center of each portico
- All of Palladio's buildings use wall thickness as their module
- Building is intersection of a square & a cross
- Whole site is oriented so the corners face compass points - so each room will get sun
- Original dome was to have an oculus like Pantheon, but height like Duomo

Palladio & Scamozzi, Teatro Olimpico, Vicenza, 1579

- Illusionistic recession into space behind stage set by Scamozzi
- Indication that Renaissance architecture is giving way to a theatrical baroque sensibility

Palladio, San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, 1565

- Palladio's solution for how to make a classical façade for a basilica-form building
- Combines 2 temple facades to make a double gable:
- 1) One is tall, atop 4 colossal Corinthian columns on tall pedestals, supporting a pediment
- 2) Second is embedded within first, has Corinthian pilasters framing implied end of side aisles, supporting a pediment within

Jones, Queen's House, Greenwich, 1616

- First example of Italian architecture being officially adopted in Britain
- Most British structures before this were red brick
- This was also brick, but painted white, and also had white marble sections
- Jones creates wings to the house out of what Palladio would have established as stables
- Connects all with loggias, and also has a mezzanine loggia on the building facade

Vignola & della Porta, Il Gesù, Rome, 1568

- This church becomes the template for all Jesuit churches, its plan copied throughout the world to spread "the Word"
- Façade is not as flat as Alberti's - in fact it pushes out into street
- Doesn't use colored brick to distinguish forms
- Façade tells you how it is organized within
- Compared to Albertian church, Il Gesu shortened the nave and sheared off the transepts
- Done to improve acoustics for preachers to be heard throughout
- The transept's chapels have moved to replace side aisles
- Early version of painted figures swirling upward in dome, as if breaking through the architecture in order to soar heavenward

Sixtus V's plans for Rome

- Plan is meant to link all 7 major churches by thoroughfares with fountains along the routes
- This was to encourage pilgrims to visit, and to visit the earliest churches
- Its radical potential was to organize a city around crucial symbolic nodes, as if wheel hubs - imitated in city planning ever since, especially in capital cities, where symbols of power are located at the hub centers

Bernini, Colonnade in front of St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, 1606

- Piazzas are oval & trapezoid, not usual classical choices
- Oval piazza built around Vatican Obelisk - 2 half-circles & square shape
- Trapezoid piazza enhances verticality of façade
- Its colonnade descends in height as it nears church
- Axial geometries (use of oval and ellipses) are an effective way of combining the 2 competing Christian plans for architecture: an elongated shape with a centrally-organized form
- Symbolically the colonnade embraces its visitors& the world with open arms - never feels oppressive in its grip

Bernini, Sant'Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, 1658

- Oval shape of church inside is expressed on outside as a curving building on which even the flat entrance is bulging outward, too
- Indirect lighting of entrance is hidden behind sculpture above curved entablature
- Bernini uses same 'embracing' plan as at St. Peter's, wrapped around whole interior space
- Axis is perpendicular to street but is the small width within
- St. Andrea is lit by a hidden light source, a dome above the altar
- Then he is shown ascending heavenward above a split in the pediment ('broken pediment'), then repeated just below the oculus
- The building is adapted to representations of the saint, and responds to his experience
- dome is coffered & ribbed, & surrounded by putti welcoming St. Andrew into heaven
- Coffers & oculus are no longer simple geometries
- putti threaten to clog oculus beneath lantern

Borromini, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, 1634

- Statue of St. Charles tilts forward as does an angel-held medallion
- Interplay of concave & convex wavy entablature compounds the drama as does the niche set into the building's corner, to house one of the 4 fountains at this intersection
- Borromini uses complex mix of geometric forms to lay out plan - not using math
- Oval oculus in an oval dome on an oval drum, with coffers made from octagons, hexagons & crosses

Borromini, San Ivo della Sapienza, Rome, 1642

- He joins pre-existing colonnades with his building
- lantern atop dome is meant to look like one of the pope's ceremonial hats
- Also meant to conjure images of rising spiral & conch shell, both seen as papal and wise - hence 'sapienza' (Latin for wisdom or knowledge)
- Tries to incorporate the Barberini bee into the plan,and even the dome's interior, as if open wings
- Dome does not rest on a drum in the conventional sense so he uses a curving entablature to indicate separation of dome from space below
- dome is a 6-pointed star

Pozzo, Glorification of St. Ignatius, ceiling on Sant'Ignazio, Rome, 1691-1694

- example of how ceiling painting starts being used in combination with architecture and sculpture to compound sensation that roof of church has opened to the sky

Neumann, Vierzenheiligen, Bamberg, 1744

- traditional northern cathedral on the exterior
- but its basilica-plan interior is based on baroque-inspired ovals
- wall-piers help delineate aisles by being freely arranged
- they also obscure windows & direct sunlight
- light is refracted from many directions, some unseen, adding drama to interior
- paint colors are meant to compound open, airy experience in the space

Le Notre, plan for gardens at Versailles, 1661

- French approach becomes increasingly committed to rational basis derived from Renaisance architecture
- Even the land and site become subjugated to math & geometry to create decorative patterns imposed by man upon nature
- Example of a garden a la Française

Mansart, Chateau, Maisons-sur-Seine, 1642

- Employs stereotomy (very precise stone-fitting) to create impression of seamless stone façade with little mortar
- Also introduces mansard roof

Wren, St. Paul's, London, 1675

- Original plan derived from Italian baroque, unacceptable to British Protestants - but there are still many dome modules over the aisles
- Innovative triple layering in dome
- Innermost dome is masonry, then brick supporting the cupola & wood beams, then wood beams to support lead covered dome
- All done to create a soaring dome

Kent, Holkham Hall, Norfolk, 1734

part of neo-Palladian movement, to adopt a simplified Classicism in architecture - often adopted for country estates
- this is much more extensive than Palladio's projects
- has 4 pavilions around a central house: kitchen, chapel, music gallery, & private rooms
- uses Serliana windows Palladio favored
- grounds have many follies to see and experience - estate is early in having follies

Capability Brown, Blenheim Palace grounds, 1764

- Example of English landscape garden
- Early example of the British notion of the picturesque

Piranesi, Carceri, 1745

- print portfolio of his drawings of fantastic or ruined prisons
- appealed to desire for picturesque, and emerging Romantic sensibility
- depicted mammoth structures that baffle the senses

Ledoux, Director's House, Saltpetriere (Salt Works), Chaux, 1774

- Ledoux & Boullee known as 'visionary architects'
- Ledoux designs this as center of a half-circle of worker housing, flanked by salt factory works
- Columns are rusticated, banded, alternating from cylinder drums to cube blocks
- Ledoux plays with classical language, adopts it only when it works with his Structural Rationalist approach in design

Boffrand, Salon de la Princesse, Hôtel de Soubise, Paris, 1737

- the salon distinguishing public from private spaces in these new proto-middle-class houses
- has ensemble of architecture, painting, sculpture and furnishings melding together
- example of enfilade organization throughout house interior

Walpole, Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, England, 1748

- Self-conscious awareness to revive a debased historical style
- Use of fan vaulting inside the Gallery, copied from Westminster Abbey
- Walpole purposely designs this to appear as if it had grown organically - no rational order, necessarily, just as Gothic seemed
- Also designed so its exterior would appear as varied as possible
- Almost as though he wants to turn folly into a house - clearly is designed to also be 'picturesque'

Gabriel, Le Petit Trianon, Versailles, 1761 (plate 13.16)

- Built for Louis XV's mistress Madame Pompadour
- seen as a major break in French culture away from rococo excess, returning to Louis Quatorze's classicism, but not on that scale
- Seen as incredibly restrained yet still grand
- Tripartite division, rusticated basement, colossal Corinthian pilasters
- Pompadour dies before it is completed - later Louis XVI's wife, Marie-Antoinette, occupies, & uses this to get away from the Court

Mique & Richard, Hameau de la Reine, Versailles, 1774

- folly-like ensemble of peasant-style farm buildings built at Versailles for Marie Antoinette's enjoyment
- sign of desire to return to simpler forms even by the rich & powerful

Pritchard & Darby, Coalbrookdale Bridge, Shropshire, 1779

- The first iron structure built in Europe
- Darby's grandfather was builder of first cast iron foundry in UK
- Cost was only 1/3 of a masonry bridge
- Support posts have much greater tensile strength than before, but beams (or lintels) are only half as strong as the posts
- So they learn to hammer, making wrought iron - to compress the iron
- Constant improvements, so less iron is required, and bridges can become longer

Strutt, North Mill, Belper, England, 1804

- Iron starts being used in mill construction since it is 'fireproof'
- replaced timber frames - certain beams in this were coated in plaster so as not to be prone to fire

Paxton, The Crystal Palace, 1851

- Built for Great Exposition of 1851, showcasing technology
- First major building using primarily prefabricated parts
- Covered 18 acres
- Very few different kinds of parts - all arrived pre-assembled
- Ruskin said it was not architecture, because it lacked permanence
- First of lightweight, skeletal constructions - and transparent ones, too

Labrouste, Reading Room at Bibliotheque St.-Genevieve, 1845

- adapts iron to interior of an otherwise classical-style building (looked like the Medici villa in Florence)
- punches through iron in a cast design reminiscent of medieval flying buttress design

Schinkel, Royal Guard House, Berlin, Germany, 1817

- built when Germany just being unified as a country
- example of Neoclassical architecture
- using architecture to foster civic understanding, to create a public
- combines historical elements from Egyptian, Greek & Roman architecture
- those choices indicate a commitment to a set of values

Barry & Pugin, Houses of Parliament, London, England, 1836

- example of Gothic Revival architecture
- The clash between Beaux-Arts Style & Gothic Revival appears, in retrospect, as a debate over whether the pressures of new technology will be allowed to alter the built environment
- Several oppositions get set up in architecture in the 19th-century:
- Classical vs. Gothic
- Planned vs. Adaptive
- Symbolic vs. technological

radiating chapel

- Small apse structure built onto main apse or transept to house a relic
- Common in Romanesque churches to disperse & diversify religious focus

Romanesque

- Period in architecture characterized by buildings that appear massive and heavy
- Stone masonry becomes dominant building material, even for the ceilings/roofs
- Period involves many experiments in enclosing space, with lower ceilings and little light
- Exteriors often have motif of 3 adjoining round arches - but rest often is a continuous wall to support weight of vaulting

voussoir

- Radiating stonework that forms the top of an arch

tympanum

- Semicircular area above door and framed above by voussoirs

trumeau

- Post or column between entry doors

cloister

- Rectangular enclosed open ground adjacent to monasteries that separates monks from ordinary people
- Offers place for contemplation

groin vault

- Vault created by right-angle intersection of 2 barrel vaults - form had been known since Roman times

rib vault

- A groin vault with ribs added to the underside for reinforcement

pointed arch

- a variation on a round arch, coming to a point at the top
- This form starts being used because it distributes weight more efficiently
- It also allows for greater flexibility in width & height of arch
- Using rib vaults combined with pointed arches, architects find they can build the ribbing first, then fill in the rest later (they don't have to keep a scaffold in place until all is completed)
- This is the reason a Gothic cathedral's construction can continue for centuries

compound pier

- A cluster of joined columns or posts where many arches meet, forming one load-bearing post

triforium

- shallow arched gallery above the arcaded side aisles of a church

stained glass window

- Window made from bits of colored glass that have been set within a lead grouting
- Forms a pattern or a 3-D image
- Used to let light into space
- Used to illustrate Biblical stories

tracery

- regularly patterned curving forms, often of vines, executed in stone, to separate panes of stained glass on exterior of building

flying buttress

- A buttress, or support, on the exterior of a building, where the greatest load of weight is
- Flying buttresses were buttresses designed as partial arches to allow in light to adjoining wall

fan vaulting

- A variant of rib vaulting created by using multiple thin pointed arches, resulting in 'fan' shapes at the top of the vault
- Example of making the structural support itself into a decorative element
- Fan vaulting is considered a residue of earlier British preference for interlace designs

linear perspective

- a system for representing 3-D space realistically on a 2-D surface through modular measuring

module

- standard basic unit of measurement in any plan

orthogonal

- lines in perspective drawings that run from foreground to horizon line

vanishing point

- the point to which our eyes are drawn on the horizon line, usually where all orthogonals converge

horizon line

- the furthest boundary in perspective drawing

tripartite division

- Division of the exterior of a building into 3 sections
- Done to make interior understood from exterior organization

rustication

- rough-cut stone blocks with deeply recessed joints

ashlar

- smoothly finished stone, usually square- or rectangular-cut

quoin

- Cornerstones on brick or stone walls
- Often in rougher or larger stone
- Usually to visually frame the building

colossal order

- Using massive columns or pilasters that extend across several stories of a façade

piano nobile

principal entry floor in a building - often raised above ground floor in Palladian villas

belvedere

beautiful view' - in architecture means a structure built to have a good vista to observe

Palladian architecture

- A style of architecture based on Palladio's principles & buildings
- Characterized by symmetry, use of perspective & classical temple design
- His sources are Roman theorist Vitruvius and mathematical Alberti
- Palladian villas usually have tripartite division: basement, piano nobile, & mezzanine
- Basement is often rusticated, & for stable & agricultural work
- Piano nobile contains main entertaining areas & bedrooms
- Mezzanine is less high, contains servant's rooms & storage
- Palladian villas are often divided mathematically, as well
- Whereas Michelozzo, Brunelleschi & Alberti divided façade rationally, Palladio also divides interior space using mathematics

Baroque

- an all-purpose term to describe a period, but also a style of architecture
- derives from Church's desire to engage its laity again - to win followers back, and gain new followers in newly discovered colonies - after Council of Trent
- primarily describes southern European architecture
- Attributes:
1) Highly emotional or theatrical
2) Openly propagandistic
3) Stretching classical forms into individual expressions
4) Dynamic, angular
5) Excessive ornament
6) Hidden light sources
7) Spatial complexity
8) Interplay of concave & convex
9) Preference for axial organization: ovals
10) Combination of architecture, painting & sculpture to create illusions & break boundaries

Serliana opening

- An entrance or opening with a circular window above an opening, all framed by a pair of round arches connecting 2 entablatures
- Sometimes known as a Palladian window

mansard roof

- A hipped roof which has sharp slopes on all 4 sides of a structure, with a (usually) flat roof within
- Similar to barn roof, & makes use of roof space to create another floor

garden a la Française

earliest form of French formal garden, derived from Italy
- planting beds are arranged in geometric or stylized patterns
-paths (allees) are arranged to be lined with trees or bushes, and to frame a view
- interest in gardens starts as a means of extending house into site
- terrace is built to overlook garden
- residence is central point of garden
- pools are arranged to reflect the house, and echo it
- whole point is to demonstrate mastery of the natural world

English landscape garden

main house was at center of whole estate
- meant to appear natural, irregular, untamed, wild
- didn't use geometric structures nor allees - nothing close to the house
- constructed garden consisting of vast lawns rolling away from house, toward a cluster of trees far away
- also exploits site of nearby vast woods to frame lawns
- structures tend to be bridges at a far distance

picturesque

- an aesthetic ideal introduced in Britain in the 18th-century
- literally 'like a picture or painting'
- middle ground between the beautiful & the sublime - the picturesque is seen as mediating reason & illogic, human & nature

Structural Rationalism

- School of thought in architecture that buildings should be based on science, not archaic traditions

enfilade

- Rooms lined up ('on file') one after another, as well as their door openings
- Predecessor of modern apartment design

Neoclassicism

a movement in art & architecture popular from 1770 until 1830
- a reaction against Baroque and Rococo style in architecture
- asserts a need to adopt Greek and Roman solutions in building
- often resulted in adoption of Greek and Roman aesthetic style
- also responding to mounting social & political changes
- insistent on a canon of universal standards
- Classicism's criteria as executed in the Renaissance were: ideal beauty, orderly expression (based on geometry), & organic harmony (simplicity)

Gothic Revival

- an effort in 19th-century architecture to reproduce Gothic period buildings
- fueled by a rejection of classical architecture
- promoters felt Gothic architecture offered technical solutions that allowed greater strength and more flexible designs
- felt that Gothic work adapted to changing demands, so it had a closer connection to nature (they describe buildings as organisms)
- felt that Gothic work embodied desirable moral values and was produced communally
- drawbacks: Gothic style was appropriate for certain kinds of buildings and not others, and the idiosyncrasies of Gothic structure were hard to reproduce when working with prefabricated parts

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