Chapter 12 review

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ion

an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative electric charge because it has lost or gained electrons

11; 12

The sodium ion has _______ protons and ______ neutrons

octet rule

in most chemical reactions, atoms tend to match the outer electron configuration of the noble gases. This is called the ______ ______

anion

an ion with a negative charge

valence

what kind of electrons occupy the outermost energy level?

cation

an ion with a positive charge

noble gas

many stable ions have an electron configuration of a _________

crystal lattice

the specific way in which atoms are arranged in an ionic compound

unit cell

the simplest repeating unit of a crystal structure

salt

a compound that results when an ionic bond is formed between a cation and an anion

lattice energy

what is released when 1 mole of a salt is formed from gaseous ions?

-arranged in crystal lattice structure
-brittle
-tight formation
-shaped in a cube formation
-anions and cations are ionically bonded
-arranged in octahedral position

describe the structure of salt crystals

because of the interaction with opposite charges. also, ionic solids melt when heated to form liquids, making this a poor conductor of heat

why are ionic solids generally poor conductors of electricity?

when melted or dissolved because they are no longer tightly held in the formation, making it easy for the salt to move freely in order to conduct electricity

when are salts excellent conductors of heat?

the ionic compounds causes the compounds to be hard because the structure is tightly held together in the crystal lattice structure

describe why the structure of ionic compounds causes the compounds to be hard

8

aan octet is equal to

group 18

which element group is able to satisfy the octet rule without forming compounds?

-electron configuration
-number of electrons
-chemical reactivity

an ion and its parent ion atom differ in:

francium

the most active metals are closest to which element?

fluorine

the most active non-metals are closest to which element?

six

the arrangement of ion in sodium chloride shows that each ion is surrounded by ____ oppositely-charged ions.

crystal lattice

the attractive force between sodium ions and chloride ions results in an arrangement of ions in repeating units arranged to form a ___________

attraction; repulsion

in the sodium chloride crystal arrangement, the net effect is that the _______ between oppositely charged ions is significantly greater than _________ between ions of like charge.

charge; size

the arrangement of cations and anions depends on the ______ and the ______ of the ions.

metals need to lose electrons in order to reach the noble gas configuration, which forms cations.

why do atoms of metals form cations?

nonmetals need to gain electrons in order to reach the noble gas configuration, which forms anions.

why do atoms of nonmetals form anions?

1. high melting/ boiling point
2. soluble in water
3. conduct electricity when dissolved in water
4. crystalline solids
5. brittle and break under stress

name five characteristics of ionic compounds:

salt

ionic compounds resulting from the neutralization reaction of an acid and base

they have a strong electrostatic attraction to each other, causing them to have high melting/ boiling points.

why do ionic compounds have high melting points and high boiling points?

each group's ionic charges are equal to lost or gained valence electrons to form an ion

what is shown about all of the ionic charges for groups 1, 2, 15, 16, and 17?

octet rule

atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to obtain a full set of valence electrons.

-malleable
-lustrous
-metallic bonding
-more than 4 valence electrons
-conducts electricity in solid state
-ductile
-only forms positive ions
-covalent bonding
-gives away electrons in chemical reactions

properties of metals:

-gaseous at room temperature
-forms negative ions
-brittle
-nonconductor
-can have both positive and negative oxidation numbers
-receives electrons in chemical reactions

properties of non-metals:

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