Botany Test 2

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the plant body and the shoot system I

Apical meristem

primary tissue formed: height and depth

Meristematic Tissue

apical meristem and lateral meristem; primary tissue

lateral meristem

vascular and cork cambium; secondary tissue

Non-meristematic tissue

does not undergo mitosis; simple tissue and complex tissue

simple non-meristematic tissues

parenchyma, collenchyma, schlerenchyma

apical meristem

SAM and RAM

primary growth in a plant

protoderm, ground meristem, procambium

protoderm

epidermis; for protection

ground meristem

ground tissue; storage

procambium

primary xylem and phloem; transport

lateral

vascular cambium, cork cambium, intercalary meristems: make up ______ meristem

vascular cambium produces:

fascicular cambium (secondary xylem and phloem) and interfascicular cambium (rays)

cork cambium produces:

phellem (cork), phelloderm (soft cork), phellogen (more cork cambium)

intercalary meristems

found only in monocots; increases stem length and left growth; do not have vascular/cork cambium

schlerenchyma tissue includes types of:

sclereids and fibers

parenchyma tissue

found everywhere in all major parts; soft, many sided shape; vacuole holds tannons/oil and starch); longevity; cell division (more cortex, pith, mesophyll of leaves, xylem, phloem)

parenchyma tissue

aerenchyma (lots of air spaces), chlorenchyma (lots of chloroplasts), transfer cells (cell wall extensions to increase surface area) are subtypes of _______ _________

collenchyma tissue

thicker cell walls at corners; found just beneath epidermis; longer than wide; storage, strength, support

schlerenchyma tissue

very thick cell walls; dead at maturity/no active cytoplasm; support

schlerenchyma tissue

sclereids (seed coats, shell of nuts/fruits) and fibers (xylem, phloem, cortex for ropes and canvas) form __________

complex tissues

xylem, phloem, epidermis, periderm are all simple/complex tissues?

xylem

conduct water and dissolved substances up the plant

xylem

cells in ___________: parenchyma, fibers, vessel elements, tracheids, ray cells

trachieds

thick secondary walls, tapered at the end; in cone-bearing trees and flowering trees

cone-bearing trees

xylem tissue in ______ trees: completely made of tracheids; walls have spiral thickening; most conduction up and some down; lateral flow by means of rays

flowering trees

xylem tissue in _______ trees: made of both xylem vessels and tracheids; most conduction up and some down; lateral flow by means of pits

rays

responsible for water flow laterally; parenchyma cells; found in horizontal rows in cross section; develop from vascular cambium

tracheids

dead at maturity; transport water and salt; in certain situation, a pair of pits is present when two ____ are in contact with each other (lateral flow)

pit

area of cell where there is no secondary wall formation; controls passage of water and minerals from cell to cell

torus

thickened region of pit membrane (part of pit)

phloem

conduction throughout plant of dissolved foods

phloem

______ is composed of: sieve tube members, companion cells, fibers, parenchyma cells, ray cells

gymnosperms

sieve cells and albuminous cells (gymno/angio-sperms?)

phloem tissue

laid end to end forms sieve tubes; end walls have no large opening; end walls are filled with large pores; porous end walls called sieve plates; sieve tube elements have no nucleus; sieve tubes survive because of companion cells

angiosperm

Flowering plant

gymnosperms

pine trees (______sperms)

sieve cells

found in primary gymnosperms; have no nuclei; have no adjacent companion cells; have parenchyma cells (albuminous cells)

flowering plants and deciduous trees

sieve tube elements are found in:

epidermis tissue

outermost layer of plant; usually 1 cell thick

fatty substance

cutin

protective layer

cuticle

deposited on cuticle through microscopic channels in cell wall

wax

epidermis tissue

cutin, cuticle, and wax all compose which type of tissue?

root hairs

tubular extension of epidermal cell (provides for more surface area)

stomata

pores found in leaves and stems

trichome

gland cell of leaf

periderm tissue

in woody plants, epidermis is lost and replaced by _________.

suberin, waterproof, protects

protoplasm of cork cells secrete _______ into cork cell walls, making it ______, and ______ tissue beneath

phelloderm

tissue inside the cork cambium that is living

gas exchange between outside environment and interior cells

lenticles function:

lenticles

cork cambium produces loose pockets of cork cells; these cells are not impregnated with suberin (process that makes __________)

protoderm, procambium, ground meristem; primary

___________, ______________, and ___________ make up the apical meristem. (Primary/Secondary) tissue

protoderm

epidermis is made from the ________

procambium

________ makes up primary xylem and phloem, and fascicular cambium

ground meristem

________ is made up of ground tissue, pith and pith rays, and cortex

parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma

3 tissue/cell types that make up ground tissue

cortex

interfascicular cambium and cork cambium derive from the ________

phellem and phelloderm

_____ and _____ make up cork cambium

false

(T/F): phelloderm is secondary tissue that develops directly from phellem during the process of mitosis

true

(T/F): the youngest secondary xylem is the layer of cells closest to the vascular cambium

pectin

complex tissue cells are glued to each other by a material called ___________

bordered pits

________ occur where the primary wall remains intact, develop in tracheids, vessel members, and some fibers, have an expanded border of secondary wall that extends over the pit chamber, are a feature of secondary xylem

plasmodesmata

companion cells communicate with sieve elements by means of _______________

dicotyledonous

a plant that forms an embryo with two seed leaves

internode

distance along the stem between points of leaf attachment

herbaceous

type of plant in which xylem cell walls are thin and not lignified

angiosperm

produces seeds with an ovary (____sperm)

terminal bud

a bud that forms at the tip of a branch

soft wood

gymnosperm wood

stolon

a stem that grows horizontally above ground

springwood

(season-wood) xylem tissue with large diameter vessels

fusiform initial

a meristematic cell that divides longitudinally to produce elongated xylem elements such as vessels

corm

a propagule that stores reserves in stem tissue rather than leaf tissue

alternate

phyllotaxis: plants with one leaf per node and leaves positioned at 180 degrees from each other

spiral

phyllotaxis: one leaf per node but the angle divergence between leaves is 137.5 degrees

opposite

phyllotaxis: plants with two leaves per node where the angle of divergence between successive pairs is 90 degrees

whorled

phyllotaxis: three or more leaves per node

bulb

a short stem surrounded by fleshy storage leaves known as scales

rhizome

a thickened stem that grows below the ground often horizontally

cladophyll

flattened photosynthetic stems that look and function like leaves

tuber

an enlarged terminal portion of an underground stem that funciton in storage

thorn

stems that arise in leaf axils and function in protection against predators

open

stomata open/close when water potential moves from epidermal cells to guard cells

close

stomata open/close when water potential moves from guard cells to epidermal cells

pressure, solute

water potential = ______ potential + _______ potential

dead, thick, lignin, impermeable, none, water and minerals, leaves, upwards, fibers

xylem: made of ____ cells, thickness, cell wall material: _____, permeable?, cytoplasm? transports ______, carried to ________, direction of flow: _______, tissue also has _______

living, thin, cellulose, permeable, lining, food, growing parts and storage organs, up and down, companion cells

phloem: made of ____ cells, thickness, cell wall material: _____, permeable?, cytoplasm? transports ______, carried to ________, direction of flow: _______, tissue also has _______

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