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iso

alike; the same

endo

within; inner

hyper

high; above; exceeding

-lysis

split or break

energy

the capacity to do work

kinetic

energy of motion

potential

stored energy

heat

thermal energy

chemical energy

potential energy stored in bonds of molecules

glucose molecules

release to power to work the cell

thermodynamics

the study of energy transformation

1st law of thermodynamics

energy can be changed from one form to another

1st law of thermodynamics

energy cannot be created or destroyed

2nd law of thermodynamics

energy transformations increase disorder

entropy

disorder

lost in heat

some energy is...

heat

what is the measure of disorder/entropy?

endergonic and exergonic

2 types of reactions:

endergonic reactions

stores more energy than it releases

exergonic reactions

releases more energy than it stores

endergonic

"energy in" reactions

endergonic

absorbs energy and yields rich potential energy

exergonic

releases energy and yields products that contain less potential energy then their reactants

photosynthesis

example of an endergonic reaction:

cellular respiration

example of an exergonic reaction:

thousands of chemical reactions

cells carry out...

cellular metabolism

the sum of endergonic and exergonic is...

energy coupling

uses exergonic reactions to fuel endergonic reactions

production of ATP

example of energy coupling:

ATP

_________ shuttles chemical energy and drives cellular work.

ATP

adenosine triphosphate

ATP

powers all forms of cellular work

adenine (nitrogenous base), ribose, and triphosphate

ATP consists of...

triphosphate

a chain of 3 phosphate groups which are negatively charged

in the bonds between the phosphate groups

where is the energy of an ATP molecule located?

hydrolysis

the phosphate groups are easily broken by...

energy is released

ATP becomes ADP when...

phosphorylation

ATP drives endergonic reactions by...

chemical, mechanical, and transport

3 types of cellular work:

chemical work

synthesis of molecules

proteins

example of chemical work:

energy; dehydration synthesis

ATP provides ________ for __________ to link amino acids together

mechanical work

movement of cell of body; any movement

muscle contractions

example of mechanical work:

phosphate group; changes

the transfer of _________ changes the _________ of contractive proteins

transport work

movement of substances across membranes

pumping ions across a cellular membrane

example of transport work:

phosphate group; ions

transfer of a __________ causes the receiving membrane protein to change shape-- enabling ________ to pass through.

ATP is a renewable source that cells regenerate

cellular work can be sustained because...

phosphorlated

ATP is..

enzymes

speed up the cell's chemical reactions by lowering energy barriers

reactions would not happen fast enough for a living thing

without enzymes...

energy of activation

for a chemical reaction to begin reactants must absorb some energy

a certain amount of energy

in order for a reaction to start, there has to be....

speeds up a rate of reaction by decreasing the energy activation needed to begin the reaction

an enzyme...

the activation requirement

enzymes lower..

enzyme; cellular reaction

a specific _________ catalyzes each __________ _________

enzymes

have unique 3-D shapes

substrate

specific reactant that the enzyme acts upon

active site

area of the enzyme where reactant fits; a pocket on surface; fits only one kind of substrate, making enzymes specific

induced fit

specific fit of reactant in active sight; when it slightly conforms

-ase

ezymes mostly end in

sucrase

the enzyme that breaks down sucrose

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