What is stress?
Any disturbance in a person's normal balanced state.
Give some examples of stressors.
Stimulus perceived as a challenge or threat.
Distress- threatens health
Eustress- Good stress. Motivational
External- death of a family member, hurricane
Developmental- predicted to occur at various stages of life
Situational- Unpredictable like an auto accident
Physiological- affect body structure and function
Psychosocial- arise from work, family dynamics, living situation.
absence of parental figures
failure of parents to meet safety, security, love, and belonging needs
failure of parents to meet basic physiological needs like oxygen, food, elimination, rest, and cleanliness.
Exposure to peers
Rapid changes in appearance
need to achieve
decisions about future
conflicts between standards of behavior /sex drive
alcohol and drugs
Young Adult Stressors
Separation from family, college, job
youth to adult responsibilities
Preparing for careers, learning a trade
career goals and stability
financial stressors, relationships, providing a home
work vs family
Middle Age Stressors
Career achievement vs challenges
child rearing/ grandparenting
changes in appearance and health
too many responsibilities
sandwiched between children and aging parents
Older Adult Stressors
Loss of family and friends
changes in appearance and functional ability
major life changes
health problems with discomfort and pain
loss of independence
reduction in social status
What are coping strategies?
behaviors a person uses to manage stress.
daydreaming, lifestyle changes, sleeping, seeking advice.
What is adaptation?
Making healthy choices that reduce the effects of stress.
What are the 3 approaches to coping that are commonly used?
Altering the stressor- ie, if you are too busy, quitting an activity
Adapting to the stressor- ie; finding more efficient ways to complete necessary tasks
Avoiding the stressor- avoiding certain people that stress you out, avoiding medical consultation when you think you have a problem.
What personal factors influence adaptation?
Perception of stressor,
Overall health status,
How do people respond to stress?
Alarm stage triggers fight or flight response, The resistance stage is where the body attempts to cope and protect itself, The exhaustion or recovery stage the boduy is either unsuccessful (exhaustion) an illness or death occurs, or adaptation was successful (recovery) and healing occurs.
GAS vs. LAS
GAS is a whole body response to a stressor and the nonspecific responses that all people have in common. Whereas LA is a localized body response involving only a specific body part, tissue or organ. LAS is reflex response and inflammatory response.
What are some psychological responses to stress?
Cognitive responses like difficulty concentrating or poor judgement.
Emotional responses like anger or lethargy
Behavioral responses like substance abuse, sleeplessness, or rebellion.
What are the 5 phases of crisis?
What are some stress induced psychological responses?
What stressors can lead to burnout?
long shifts with minimal breaks
shift rotation that upsets circadian rhythm
floated to the unfamiliar
death and dying
anticipating the needs of others
frustration with patients
What role does stress play in nursing diagnosis?
It is usually the etiology. Because it is so nonspecific there is almost no limit to the number of nursing diagnoses that can be stress induced.