Psy Chap 8-10 Review

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The scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception to death is called

human development

develop when two eggs each get fertilized by two different sperm, resulting in two zygotes in the uterus at the same time.

Dizygotic twins

Piaget's term for the knowledge that an object exists even when it is out of sight is

object permanence

What is the term for the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver?

attachment

Fraternal twins (otherwise known as dizygotic twins) have identical genetics to each other.

False

Dr. Smith believes people who are very aggressive have become so because of their life experiences. Dr. Goldberg believes people are more or less aggressive from birth because of genetic factors. Which of the following terms best describes an issue in human development that is highlighted by their disagreement?

nature versus nurture

Which of the following is the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?

sensorimotor; preoperational; concrete operations; formal operations

Your infant sister picks up objects, feels every part of them, and then puts them in her mouth. What stage of Jean Piaget's model of cognitive development does this behavior suggest she is in?

sensorimotor

What term is used to describe a child's inability to see the world through anyone else's eyes except his or her own? (In other words, a struggle with understanding the perspective of others.)

egocentrism

According to Piaget, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object's nature is known as ___________. (Think of the video clip that I showed you with the children looking at the liquid in the different size glasses.)

conservation

Children in Piaget's Concrete Operational stage of thinking (ages 7-12) find understanding abstract concepts really easy.

False

Erik Erikson's theory of Psychosocial Development stressed the importance of social interactions in a person's development and that development occurs as people pass through a series of 8 stages throughout life.

True

In Erikson's theory of Psychosocial Development, he stressed that at each stage, a person faces an emotional crisis (a turning point) in which they must face. If the crisis is successfully met, the person moves on to the next stage progressing toward normal, healthy psychosocial development.

True

During Piaget's Formal Operations stage, this is a type of thinking common to adolescents in which young people believe that everyone is looking at them. It leads to them experiencing intense self-consciousness.

Imaginary Audience

The psychological aspect of being male or female is know as?

Gender

Which characteristic is NOT usually considered part of the male gender stereotype?

Emotional

___________ consists of the biological changes in the sex organs and reproductive system that occur during adolescence, lasting about four years.

Puberty

One secondary male sex characteristic is __________.

facial & chest hair

Female secondary sex characteristics consist of ___________.

breast development

Researchers have found that when traditional males, traditional females, and androgynous people are compared in terms of the degree of depression, androgynous people are usually __________.

Less depressed

___________ is the characteristic of possessing the most positive personality characteristics of males and females regardless of one's actual biological sex.

Androgyny

________ is the process by which people learn their culture's preferences and expectations for proper "masculine" and "feminine" behaviors. (Typically it is when they are learning their culture's gender stereotypes.)

Gender Typing

Rashid feels that he was meant to be a woman, even though he is a man. He is considering surgery to alter his bodily appearance to that of a woman. Rashid might be suffering from a disorder known as ___________.

gender identity disorder

When children observe their same-sex parents behaving in certain ways and imitate that behavior, a psychologist uses which theory to explain the situation?

social learning theory

A ___________ is an overgeneralized concept about males or females that assigns various characteristics to them on the basis of nothing more than being male or female.

gender stereotype

Equipment to measure physiological activity during sexual activity was created by ___________.

Masters and Johnson

David has just had an orgasm. However, his partner is still excited and wants David to continue his sexual activity. At his point, though, David has lost his erection. David is probably now in which part of the sexual response cycle?

refractory period of resolution

Based on the research he had done, what did Alfred Kinsey end up reporting about sexual orientation?

Sexual orientation is on a continuum, with some people falling at either extreme (being purely heterosexual or homosexual) and some falling closer to the middle.

Donald obtained sexual arousal and pleasure by wearing women's clothing. He has a condition known as __________.

transvestism

_______ is a sexual disorder in which the person's preferred method of sexual arousal and fulfillment is through sexual behavior that is unusual or socially unacceptable. Some examples of this include fetishisms, exhibitionism, and voyeurism

Paraphilia

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