AP US/VA History Chapters 11-12

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Also known as the "Revolution of 1800"

The Election of 1800

The Election of 1800 was a revolution because...

...power transfered peacefully from one party to another

What started during the Election of 1800?

Mudslinging and propaganda through the newspaper, including political cartoons

"midnight judges"

The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.

The Judicary Acts of 1801

Acts that were passed by the departing Federalist Congress, which created 16 new federal judgeships ensuring a Federalist hold in the judiciary.

The Marbury vs. Madison case

Case in which the supreme court first asserted th power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional

Barbary Pirates

Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations

Tripolitan War

Conflict in 1801 when the pasha of Tripoli cut down the flagstaff of the American consulate, lasting four years, after which a treaty was reached for the sum of $60,000 to ransom captured Americans.

The Louisiana Purchase

Thomas Jefferson sent 2 people to buy New Orleans from France for as much as $10,000,000. They went to negotiate and the French offered them all of Louisiana for 15,000,000. They accepted the great offer.

Why did Napoleon give up New Orleans and Louisiana?

He was too busy trying to take over Europe and putting down a rebelllion lead by Toussaint L'Ouverture in Haiti.

Toussaint L'Ouverture

He was a self-educated ex-slave and military genious. He was finally betrayed by the French, who imprisoned him in a chilly dungeon in France, where he coughed his life away. Indirectly, he did much to set up the sale of Louisiana to the U.S.. L'Ouverture's slave rebellion in Haiti also (briefly) established the first black government in the New World, striking fear into the hearts of slaveowners throughout the Western Hemisphere.

The Corps of Discovery

The group that went with Lewis and Clark on their expedition to explore Louisiana.

Lewis and Clark

Jefferson's secretary and a military man sent to map and record all that they saw in the Louisiana Territory.

Aaron Burr

He served as the 3rd Vice President of the United States. Member of the Republicans and President of the Senate during his Vice Presidency. He was defamed by the press, often by writings of Hamilton. Challenged Hamilton to a duel in 1804 and killed him. He then fled and tried to start his own country (near the Mississippi River), and got charged with treason. He then tried to get England to invade America. He also tried to secede New England from America, and he got himself involved in the War of 1812.

Orders in Council

Edicts issued by the British Crown closing French-owned European ports to foreign shipping. The French responded by ordering the seizure of all vessels entering British ports, thereby cutting off American merchants from trade with both parties.

Impressment

The forcible enlistment of sailors, and a crude form of conscription that the British had employed for over four centuries.

The Chesapeake Affair

The conflict between Britain and the United States that precipitated the 1807 embargo. The conflict developed when a British ship, in search of deserters, fired on the American Chesapeake off the coast of Virginia.

The Embargo Act

An idea proposed by Jefferson to keep America neutral during the Napoleonic wars. He thought that if he cut off all trade from Europe that Europe would accept that they were neutral. He thought that Europe needed American goods more than America needed European goods. Didn't work. Because of this Jefferson loses the election in 1808 to James Madison.

Non-Intercourse Act

1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.

Macon's Bill No. 2

1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain. This built more tension between Britain and the U.S., which would soon lead to war.

War hawks

Democratic-Republican Congressmen who pressed James Madison to declare war on Britain. Largely drawn from the South and West, the war hawks resented British constraints on American trade and accused the British of supporting Indian attacks against American settlements on the frontier.

The Battle of Tippecanoe

Resulted in the defeat of Shawnee chief Tenskwatawa, "the Prophet" at the hands William Henry Harrison in the Indiana wilderness. Harrison became a hero. After the battle, the Prophet's brother, Tecumseh, forged an alliance with the British against the United States.

The War of 1812

A war between the United States and Britain the resulted because of capturing naval vessels and Native Americans problems blamed on Britain.

The Battle of New Orleans

Resounding victory of American forces against the British, restoring American confidence and fueling an outpouring of nationalism. The battle took place after the end of the war, but the communication was slow back then.

Congress of Vienna

Convention of major European powers to redraw the boundaries of continental Europe after the defeat of Napoleonic France.

Treaty of Ghent

Ended the War of 1812 in a virtual draw, restoring prewar borders but failing to address any of the grievances that first brought America into the war.

Hartford Convention

Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence.

Rush-Bagot Agreement

Signed by Britain and the U.S., it established strict limits on naval armaments in the Great Lakes, a first step in the full demilitarization of the U.S.-Canadian border, completed in the 1870s.

Tariff of 1816

The first protective tariff in American history, created primarily to shield New England manufacturers from the inflow of British goods after the War of 1812.

American System

Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.

Era of Good Feelings

A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.

Why was it not truly an "Era of Good Feelings"?

A time of panic about slavery and the economy

Panic of 1819

Sever financial crisis brought on primarily by the efforts of the Bank of the U.S. to curb overspeculation on western lands. It disproportionately affected the poorer classes, esp. in the West, sowing the seeds of Jacksonian Democracy.

Land Act of 1820

authorized a buyer to purchase 80 virgin acres at a minimum of $1.25 an acre. The West also demanded cheap transportation and cheap money.

Tallmadge Amendment

Failed proposal to prohibit the imprtation fo slaves into Missouri territory and pave the way for gradual emancipation. Southerners vehemently opposed the amendment, which they perceived as a threat to the sectional balance between North and South

peculiar institution

A euphemism for slavery and the economic ramifications of it in the American South. The term aimed to explain away the seeming contradiction of legalized slavery in a country whose Declaration of Independence states that "all men are created equal". It was one of the key causes of the Civil War.

Missouri Compromise

The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.

McCulloch v. Maryland

1819, Cheif justice john marshall limits of the US constition and of the authority of the federal and state govts. one side was opposed to establishment of a national bank and challenged the authority of federal govt to establish one. supreme court ruled that power of federal govt was supreme that of the states and the states couldnt interfere

loose construction

belief that the government can do anything that the constitution does not prohibit

Cohens v. Virginia

Supreme Court case which asserted the right of the Supreme Court to review the decision of state supreme courts

Gibbons v. Ogden

This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.

Fletcher v. Peck

Supreme Court case which protected property rights and asserted the right to invalidate state laws in conflict with the Constitution

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

This 1819 Marshall Court decision was one of the earliest and most important U.S. Supreme Court decisions to interpret the contracts clause in Article I, Section 10 of the Constitution. The case arose from a dispute in New Hampshire over the state's attempt to take over Dartmouth College. By construing the Contract Clause as a means of protecting corporate charters from state interventions, Marshall derived a significant constitutional limitation on state authority. As a result, various forms of private economic and social activity would enjoy security from state regulatory policy. Marshall thus encouraged the emergence of the relatively unregulated private economic actor as the major participant in a growing national economy.

Anglo-American Convention

Treaty of 1818, was a treaty signed in 1818 between the United States and the United Kingdom. It resolved standing boundary issues between the two nations, and allowed for joint occupation and settlement of the Oregon Country, known to the British and in Canadian history as the Columbia District of the Hudson's Bay Company, and including the southern portion of its sister fur district New Caledonia.

Florida Purchase Treaty

In 1819 Spain ceded Florida and other claims to Oregon in exchange for Texas. This gave land to Mexico but later caused Americans to fight against Mexicans for their old land.

Flordia Purchase Treaty...also known as...

Adams-Onís Treaty

The Monroe Doctrine

Primarily the work of JQAdams, said the the USA would consider any foreign challenge to the sovereignty of existing American nations an unfriendly act. No European colonization in the Americas

Russo-American Treaty

Fixed the line of 54º40' as the southernmost boundary of Russian holdings in North America.

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