A&P Test3 B

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absolute refractory period

In this period, the neuron cannot respond to a stimulus no matter how strong.

depolarization

In this period, the interior of the cell becomes less negative due to an influx of sodium ions.

repolarization

In this period, potassium ions diffuse out of the neuron due to a change in membrane permeability.

action potential

Also called a nerve impulse transmitted by axons.

relatively refractory period

In this period, an exceptionally strong stimulus can trigger a response.

Temporal summation

Numerous nerve impulses arriving at a synapse at closely timed intervals exert a cumulative effect.

Spatial summation

Stimulation of a postsynaptic neuron by many terminals at the same time.

Subthreshold stimulus

An insufficient stimulus.

Threshold stimulus

Any stimulus below this intensity will result in no response in a neuron.

trigger zone

Area where nerve impulse is generated.

receptive region

Receives stimuli.

conducting region

Plasma membrane exhibits voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels.

secretory region

Plasma membrane exhibits voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.

secretory zone

Axon terminals release neurotransmitters.

receptive region

Plasma membrane exhibits chemically gate ion channels.

diverging circuit

One incoming fiber triggers responses in ever-increasing numbers farther and farther along the circuit.

parallel after-discharge circuit

May be involved in complex, exacting types of metal processing.

reverberating circuit

Involved in control of rhythmic activities such as breathing.

diverging circuit

Involved in activating fibers of a skeletal muscle such as the biceps muscle.

converging circuit

Different types of sensory input can have the same ultimate effect.

histamine

Increases acid secretion in the stomach; blocked by cimetidine.

norepinephrine

"Feel-good" neurotransmitter.

substance p

Mediates pain.

glycine

Principal inhibitory neurotransmitter of the spinal cord.

endorphins

Natural opiates that inhibit pain; effect mimicked by morphine.

E. provide the defense for the CNS

Which of the following is NOT a function of astrocytes?
A. support and brace neurons
B. anchor neurons to blood vessels
C. guide the migration of young neurons, synapse formation, and helping to determine capillary permeability
D. control the chemical environment around neurons
E. provide the defense for the CNS

motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands

Describe the ANS.

ependymal cells

What are ciliated CNS neuroglia that play an active role in moving the cerebrospinal fluid?

neurilemma

The sheath of Schwann.

in the retina of the eye

Bipolar neurons are commonly found

acetylcholine

An excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating the skeletal muscle.

analyzes sensory information, stores information, makes decisions

Describe the integrative function of the nervous system.

absolute refractory period

The period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus.

c. they are mitotic

Which of the following is NOT a special characteristic of neurons?
A. they conduct impulses
B. they have extreme longevity
C. they are mitotic
D. they have an exceptionally high metabolic rate

axon

The part of a neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body.

voltage-gated channel

An ion channel that opens in response to a change in membrane potential and participates in the generation and conduction of action potentials.

synapse

An impulse from one nerve cell is communicated to another nerve cell via the ___.

destroy ACh a brief period after its release by the axon endings

What is the role of acetylcholinesterase?

D. innervation of skeletal muscle

Which of the following is NOT a function of the autonomic nervous system?
a. innervation of smooth muscle of the digestive tract
b. innervation of cardiac muscle
c. innervation of glands
d. innervation of skeletal muscle

ganglia

Collections of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system.

neurotransmitter

The substance released at axon terminals to propagate a nervous impulse.

association neuron

A neuron that has as its primary function the job of connecting other neurons.

the myelin sheath

Saltatory conduction is made possible by ___.

e. nucleic acid

Which of the following is NOT a chemical class of neurotransmitters?
a. acetylcholine
b. amino acid
c. biogenic amine
d. ATP and other purines
e. nucleic acid

b. a nerve impulse occurs if the excitatory in inhibitory effects are equal

Which of the following is false or incorrect?
a. an excitatory postsynaptic potential occurs if the excitatory effect is greater than the inhibitory effect but less than threshold.
b. a nerve impulse occurs if the excitatory in inhibitory effects are equal.
c. an inhibitory postsynaptic potential occurs if the inhibitory effect is greater than the excitatory, causing hyper polarization of the membrane.

d. the synaptic cleft prevents an impulse from being transmitted directly from one neuron to another

Select the correct statement regarding synapses.
a. cells with interconnected cytoplasm are chemically coupled
b. the release of neurotransmitter molecules gives cells the property of being electrically coupled
c. neurotransmitter receptors are located on the axons of cells
d. the synaptic cleft prevents an impulse from being transmitted directly from one neuron to another

help to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid

Ependymal cells ___.

astrocytes

Neuroglia that control the chemical environment around neurons by buffering potassium and recapturing neurotransmitters.

oligodendrocytes

Schwann cells are functionally similar to ___.

potassium

Immediately after an action potential has peaked, which cellular gates open?

are crucial for the development of neural connections

Nerve cell adhesion molecules (N-CAMs) ____.

hyperpolarization

An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is associated with ____.

a single type of channel will open, permitting simultaneous flow of sodium and potassium

What occurs when an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is being generated on the dendritic membrane?

generator potential

When a sensory neuron is excited by some form of energy, the resulting graded potential is called a(n) ___.

c. they increase amplitude as they move away from the stimulus point

Which of the following is not true of graded potentials?
a. they are short-lived
b. they can form on receptor endings
c. they increase amplitude as they move away from the stimulus point
d. they can be called postsynaptic potentials

b. some ions are prevented from moving down their concentration gradients by ATP-driven pumps

Which of the following is true about the movement of ions across excitable living membranes?
a. ions always move actively across membranes through leakage channels
b. some ions are prevented from moving down their concentration gradients by ATP-driven pumps
c. sodium gates in the membrane can open in response to electrical potential changes
d. the bulk of the solutions inside a cell are negatively charged

the membrane potential has been reestablished

A second nerve impulse cannot be generated until ___.

the interior is negatively charged and contains less sodium

In what way does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a resting (nonconducting) neuron differ from the external environment?

the impulse would spread bidirectionally

If a motor neuron in the body were stimulated by an electrode placed about midpoint along the length of an axon...

group c fibers are not capable of saltatory conduction

How are group c neuron fibers classified?

spinal reflexes

What is an example of serial processing?

somatic

That part of the nervous system that is voluntary and conducts impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscles is the ___ nervous system.

astrocytes

___ are found in the CNS and and bind axons and blood vessels to each other.

node of ranvier

A gap between Schwann cells in the peripheral system.

ATP-dependent "motor" proteins such as kinesin, dynesin, and myosin.

What mechanism is responsible for axon transport?

electrical synapse

The synapse more common in embryonic nervous tissue than adults is the ___.

parallel processing

When information is delivered within the CNS simultaneously by different parts of the neural pathway.

graded

___ potentials are short-lived, local changes in membrane potential that can be either depolarized or hyper polarized.

multiple sclerosis

___ is a disease that gradually destroys the myelin sheaths of neurons in the CNS, particularly in young adults.

temporal

When one or more presynaptic neurons fire in rapid order it produces a much greater depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane than would result from a single EPSP; this event is called ___ summation.

Foramen magnum

The spinal cord begins at the level of the

Cauda equina

The nerves arising from the inferior lumbosacral enlargement form the

Subarachnoid space

What area of the spinal cord contains cerebrospinal fluid?

Filum terminale and denticulate ligaments

What structures help to anchor the spinal cord within the subarachnoid space?

Three horns

The gray matter of each halve of the spinal cord is divided into

Sensory and has a ganglion

The dorsal spinal nerve root is

Lateral gray horns

The cell bodies of motor neurons to autonomic effectors are located in the

Withdrawal

Pulling the arm back from a hot pan is an example of a ______ reflex.

Endoneurium

The connective tissue wrap around an axon and its Schwann cell sheath is the

Perineurium

The connective tissue wrap that surrounds many axons to form a fascicle is the

Epineurium

The connective tissue wrap the surrounds many fascicles to form a nerve is the

C. Lumbar plexus - T10 to L5

Which plexus is NOT correctly matched to its spinal nerve makeup? A. Cervical plexus - C1 to C4, B. Brachial plexus - C5 to T1, C. Lumbar plexus - T10 to L5, D. Sacral plexus - L4 to S4, E. Coccygeal plexus - S5 to Co

D. 5 roots, 3 trunks, 6 divisions, 3 cords, 5 nerves

Which of the following is the correct sequence of branching of the brachial plexus? A. 5 roots, 5 nerves, 3 trunks, 6 divisions, 3 cords / B. 5 nerves, 3 cords, 6 divisions, 3 trunks, 5 roots / C. 6 divisions, 5 roots, 5 nerves, 3 cords, 3 trunks / D. 5 roots, 3 trunks, 6 divisions, 3 cords, 5 nerves

B. Phrenic

Which of the following is NOT a main nerve of the brachial plexus? A. Median, B. Phrenic, C. Musculocutaneous, D. Ulnar, E. Radial

Cervical

The phrenic nerve is the major nerve from the ______ plexus.

Anterior thigh and leg

The major nerves from the lumbar plexus serve the

Sacral

The sciatic nerve comes from the _________ plexus.

A. Thalamus

Which of the following is NOT part of the brainstem? A. Thalamus / B. Pons / C. Medulla oblongata / D. Midbrain

B. Auditory relay center

Which of the following is NOT a function of the medulla oblongata? A. Regulate heart rate / B. Auditory relay center / C. Regulate blood vessel diameter /D. Regulate breathing

D. Visual relay center

Which of the following is NOT a function of the pons? A. Controls chewing and salivation / B. Aides the medulla oblongata in controlling breathing, swallowing and balance / C. Relay between the cerebellum and cerebrum / D. Visual relay center

Reticular activating system

What structure plays a major role in consciousness and sleep-wake cycles?

Arbor vitae

The white matter of the cerebellum is called the

C. Origin of impulses to skeletal muscle

Which of the following is NOT a function of the cerebellum? A. Controls balance and eye movements / B. Controls posture, locomotion and fine motor coordination / C. Origin of impulses to skeletal muscle / D. Planning, practicing and learning complex movements

B. Midbrain

Which of the following is NOT part of the diencephalon? A. Hypothalamus / B. Midbrain / C. Thalamus / D. Subthalamus

Thalamus

All sensory impulses except for smell are relayed through the

D. Control of the autonomic nervous system

Which of the following is NOT a function of the thalamus? A. Regulation of skeletal muscles / B. Limbic system and emotions / C. Perception of pain / D. Control of the autonomic nervous system

Habenular

What part of the diencephalon is involved with emotional and visceral responses to odors?

D. All of the choices are correct

Which of the following is NOT a function of the hypothalamus? A. Body temperature control / B. Autonomic nervous system control / C. Mood and emotions / D. All of the choices are correct

Mammillary bodies

What part of the hypothalamus are involved in emotional responses to odors, olfactory reflexes and memory?

Longitudinal fissure

What divides the cerebrum into right and left hemispheres?

Central

What structure separates the frontal from the parietal lobe?

Cerebral medulla

The white matter of the cerebrum is the

Commissural fibers

What type of fibers connect one hemisphere to the other?

Projection fibers

What type of fibers are continuations of the fibers in the spinal cord?

C. Mammillary bodies

Which of the following is NOT a basal nucleus? A. Substantia nigra / B. Caudate nucleus / C. Mammillary bodies / D. Lentiform nucleus

Limbic system

What system is involved in basic survival functions and emotions?

Cerebral aqueduct

What structure connects the third and fourth ventricles?

Cerebrospinal fluid

What is found in the subarachnoid space?

Choroid plexuses

What produces cerebrospinal fluid?

Arachnoid granulations into the dural sinuses

Where does cerebrospinal fluid return to the blood supply?

A. Trigeminal

Which cranial nerve is NOT involved with taste? A. Trigeminal / B. Glossopharyngeal / C. Vagus / D. Facial

Trigeminal

Which cranial nerve is the major sensory nerve from the face?

Facial

Which cranial nerve is the major motor nerve for facial expressions?

Vagus

Which cranial nerve leaves the head and neck region to supply the internal viscera?

Trigeminal

Tic douloureux is caused by a lesion to the ____________ nerve.

Mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve

What nerve is generally used for dental anesthesia of the lower jaw?

Pons

The corneal reflex is mediated by the

Medulla oblongata

The gag reflex is mediated by the

D. CNS - always excitatory; ANS - always inhibitory

Which of the following differences between the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system is incorrect? A. CNS - one neuron to effector; ANS - two neurons to effector / B. CNS - innervates skeletal muscle; ANS - innervates smooth and cardiac muscles and glands / C. CNS - axons myelinated; ANS - preganglionic axons myelinated, postganglionic axons unmyelinated / D. CNS - always excitatory; ANS - always inhibitory

Preganglionic

The _______________ neuron runs from the CNS and the autonomic ganglion.

Thoracolumbar division

Another name for the sympathetic division is the

Lateral gray horns of T1 through L2 region of the spinal cord

The cell bodies of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons are in the

Alongside the vertebral column from cervical through sacral regions

The sympathetic chain ganglion are located

Short and myelinated and the postganglionic neuron is long and nonmyelinated

In the sympathetic division, the preganglionic neuron is

Skeletal muscle B. Smooth muscle and glands in the skin

Sympathetic postganglionic nerves that run with spinal nerves will serve

Organs in the thoracic cavity

Sympathetic postganglionic nerves that form sympathetic nerves supply

Organs in the abdominal cavity

The sympathetic splanchnic nerves serve

Adrenal medulla

Splanchnic nerves that do not synapse in either the chain ganglion nor the collateral ganglion will synapse with specialized neurons in the

Brain stem and lateral gray horns of the sacral area of the spinal cord

The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic neurons are found in the

Long and myelinated and the postganglionic neuron is short and nonmyelinated

In the parasympathetic division, the preganglionic neuron is

C. Somatic motor neurons that connect the CNS to the digestive tract

The nerve plexuses of the enteric nervous system receive contributions from all of the following except A. Enteric neurons of the enteric plexuses / B. ANS neurons that connect the CNS to the digestive tract / C. Somatic motor neurons that connect the CNS to the digestive tract / D. Sensory neurons that connect the digestive tract to the CNS

Norepinephrine

Nerve fibers that are considered adrenergic secrete ____ as the neurotransmitter.

Nicotinic receptors

Cholinergic receptors on skeletal muscles and postganglionic neurons in the ANS are called

Muscarinic receptors

Cholinergic receptors on ANS effectors are called

Inhibitory or excitatory

Acetylcholine binding to muscarinic receptors has a/an ______ effect, depending on the effector.

Alpha or beta receptors

Adrenergic receptors on effectors are called

C. All sympathetic postganglionic neurons

Which of the following does NOT release acetylcholine? A. All sympathetic preganglionic neurons / B. All parasympathetic preganglionic neurons / C. All sympathetic postganglionic neurons / D. All parasympathetic postganglionic neurons

D. Blood vessels

Which of the following effectors are NOT cholinergic? A. Sweat glands / B. Heart / C. Large intestines / D. Blood vessels

Blood pressure, Heart rate, Digestion

Autonomic reflexes are used by the body to help regulate

Parasympathetic reduction of heart rate and sympathetic dilation of blood vessels

A sudden increase in blood pressure detected by baroreceptors in the walls of large arteries near the heart will cause

Sympathetic

In general, stimulation of the posterior hypothalamus produces ____ responses.

Arrector pili muscle

Which organs receive sympathetic innervation, but NOT parasympathetic?

Dilate the pupil

What is the function of the sympathetic division?

Constriction of airways

What is the function of the parasympathetic division?

Increase digestive functions

In general, the parasympathetic division will

Sympathetic

Which division of the ANS has a more generalized effect in the body?

One preganglionic neuron synapses with many postganglionic neurons; The secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine can effect many organs

Why does the sympathetic division of the ANS have a more generalized effect in the body?

C. Increased secretions in the digestive tract

Which of the following is NOT a typical "flight or fight" response by the sympathetic division of the ANS? A. Vasoconstriction of abdominal blood vessels / B. Dilation of air passageways / C. Increased secretions in the digestive tract / D. Increased fat break down for energy

Calcium and sodium

What ion channels are opened to produce an action potential in olfactory neurons?

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