Organic food advantages
less chemical runoff, health problems, local businesses thrive, safer, biodiversity increases
Organic food disadvantages
Expensive, harder to make en masse.
Broadening the land, When the population is spread out
Putting more plants within the area
is the practice of growing food in urban areas using available space to move toward more sustainable agriculture and reduce transportation and fossil fuel use
US Environmental Movement themes
1) tension in the role of humans
2) transition from elite to mass movement
3) expanding environmental sense of scale
someone who manages or has significant financial interest in an industrial enterprise
stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms. BEAUTY OF NATURE
Henry Thoreau's "Walden"
Lives an independent existence and understand the beauty of nature. Family was rich and he took a brake and became a transcendentalist and enjoy nature for nature's "beauty"
using the natural resources for humans: Person concerned with using natural areas and wildlife in ways that sustain them for current and future generations of humans and other forms of life. PINCHOT & ROOSEVELT
Person concerned primarily with setting aside or protecting undisturbed natural areas from harmful human activities. J. MUIR,
Dams that gave electricity and are examples of Pinchot's conservationist perspective.
Examples that brought environmental consciousness
"Donora" air pollution disaster and Cuyahoga River on fire.
Rise of plastic - a lot of negative environmental issues created because of consumer lifestyle
Photo taken by Apollo 8 while orbiting the moon. 1968.
radical environmental advocacy group emerged in 1979 members pledged "No Compromise in Defense of Mother Earth"
Epa vs. Earth First
radicals vs. non radicals
an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment. politics of the environment vs. radical look of the environment.
Legislation of the 60s and 70s (ACTS)
• Clean air and water act
• Solid Waste Disposal act
• National coastal zone act
• National forest management act
• Endangered species act
-reduce funding for environmental conservation
-Ronald Reagan 1970's
-idea that federal ownership of state's land was violating state rights
-his group demanded that the federal government transfer control over large amounts of this land to individual states, insisting on their right to make their own decisions about the management of the land and natural resources
People against "eco-nazis" who said we should use resources because we, as humans need them. Goes with pinchot's conservationist movement
• Slowing and reversing of environmental legislation
• Concern about impacts of environment protection on industry and economy
• Extensive use of cost-benefit analysis
• EPA budget cut
• Clear Act wasn't renewed until bush presidency
• Centrist policy
• Reversal of Rio Conference
• Ignored environmental issues when they interfered with business
a. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit), 1992
b. agreement on Climate Change Convention, leading to Kyoto Protocol
c. agreement to "not carry out any activities on the lands of indigenous peoples that would cause environmental degradation or that would be culturally inappropriate"
George W. Bush 2 Era
• Idea of "New Environmentalism"
• Less arsenic in drinking water
• Stronger efficiency standards
• Clear Skies proposal
New Environmentalism idea
Gale Norton: "Idea that government has done everything with regulation that they can to save the environment. People have to voluntarily act upon them."
Clear Skies proposal
Seeks to cut all power plant emission levels, by establishing a cap and trade kind of market - buy and sell emission credits.
Founding fathers of sustainable development. Idea of having separate crisis in environment, it is ONE big crisis.
the variety of species living within an ecosystem - 97% of species that have ever lived are extinct. WE ARE CHOPPING DOWN RAINFOREST - WE ARE KILLING THE ECOSYSTEM
Which extinction are we in now?
3 ecosystem services
1) Provisioning (food and water)
2) regulating (like pest control)
3) Cultural services (spiritual feelings toward natural areas)
5 Horsemen of Extinction
1) Habitat loss and fragmentation: alters and eliminates the conditions needed for plants and animals to survive
2) Invasive species: When non-natural species outcompetes natural species' light, air, nutrients, water & food
3) Direct take of wild animals and plants: leads to endangering of species
4) Pollution: affects biodiversity, nitrogen is an example that shows how excess fertilizers use can cause harmful algal blooms that kill other animals
5) Climate Change: alters too fast then problem for habitats
Problem for poor countries who need land for people.
Ecotourism is best way for country and environment to thrive
Very expensive process that is timely. Requires putting a lot of energy into saving/ restoring an area and then also in building new niches for species
Acceleration of consumption of goods has led to an increase in garbage, changing consumption of garbage (plastics), modern problem
3 Myths of Garbage
1. Organic materials biodegrade
2. Nothing happens ecologically
3. Plastic and disposable diapers are bulk of trash
Unless the constitution gives power to feds, only people and states have right to it. EPA can't do anything.
Power given to federal government to regulate business and transaction thats interstate.
Basic way to protect public health, environment, and civil rights
Congress creates the Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, and Endangered Species Act
Rapanos vs. U.S.
Rapanos drains and fills wetlands. Army Corps says that he owes money because he polluted waters of U.S.
Clean Waters Act was then changed to only compensate for navigable waters so therefore Rapanos was not charged anything
Have to show direct harm from action in order to bring case to court
Private property can't be taken away for public use w/o just compensation.
Currently being narrowly defined since govt. has to pay you if their construction limits what you hope to do with land
A person can't bring a suit challenging the constitutionality of a law unless the plaintiff is harmed by the law
Burning garbage at very high temps (ca. 850 C ) to avoid putting it into landfills
guidelines or moral principles of behavior that define our views of good, evil, right and wrong
guidelines for ways in which people should behave toward nature and the envi
Refers to thousands of small scale distinct societies comprised of 200 million people.
Diverse languages and cultures
No physical separation of human habitats and natural habitats
hunt. gather, and collect resources needed for only a specific time
places are created in order to have connection with sacred world
Iroquois challenge decisions made by tribal confederacy leaders regarding how we treat the world for future generations
Lynn White's view on Christianity
1. Humans were set apart from nature in God's image
2. Christ required no other Gods and pagan symbols
3. Instructed in Genesis to dominate and subdue
4. Afterlife is important
The idea that we are responsible for being stewards of earth
..., the belief that all creatures have rights and values; being centered on nature rather than humans.
..., the belief that humans hold a special place in nature; being centered primarily on humans and human affairs.
Deep Ecology Movement
Does not matter if human race goes extinct as long as earth is in equilibrium
..., social ethic that says we should not destroy the environment for future generations.