BMF Ch. 20

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Another name for childbed fever is...

Puerperal Fever.

Who was the doctor responsible for introducing the idea of hand washing before attending patients?

Semmelweis.

What are disease that can be transmitted from one person to another?

Communicable.

What is the natural habitat of a pathogen referred to as?

Reservoir of infection.

What is the number of cases of a specific disease per one hundred people exposed called?

Attack rate.

What is the fraction of a population who die from a specific disease called?

Mortality rate.

What are the diseases constantly present in a population called?

Endemic.

An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called...

Pandemic.

What is a cluster of cases in a specific population occurring in a brief period of time called?

Outbreak.

Apparently healthy people who may transmit a pathogen they harbor are called what?

Carriers.

Gonorrhea and typhoid fever are both diseases that may be...

Asymptomatic.

What is a dramatic increase in the incidence of a specific disease in a given population referred as?

Epidemic.

Diseases that primarily exist in animals, but may be transmitted to humans are called what?

Zoonotic.

The reservoir of infection for botulism, tetanus, and Legionnare's disease is..?

Water and soil.

Which of the following is called a zoonotic disease?

Plague.

What does vertical transmission involve?

A pregnant woman to fetus.

The single most important measure to prevent the spread of disease is..

Handwashing.

Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are...

Fomites.

Large respiratory droplets typically travel no farther from point of release than...

One meter.

Important sources of contamination in crowded locations are...

Droplets of mucus and saliva.

Droplet nuclei typically travel no farther from point of release than..

They are suspended indefinitely.

In order to prevent spread of microorganisms from the microbiology laboratory, the room air is..

Under negative pressure and filtered.

Which of the following is not a vector?

Fomites.

Name some mechanical vectors.

Flies, humans, and fleas.

Bubonic plague and pneumonic plague...

Both use rat fleas as a vector and they are the same disease but use different portal of entries.

What is the amount of infecting agent received by susceptible individuals called?

Dose.

The period of time between exposure to an agent and the onsent of disease signs and symptoms is called the...

Incubation period.

When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as...

Herd immunity.

The immunity of some black Africans to malaria is probably due to their..

Genetic background.

The type of epidemiological study that determines the characteristics of the persons involved and the time and place of the outbreak is called a(n)...

Descriptive study.

The first identified case of an infectious disease is called the..

index case.

If the number of people who become ill during an epidemic rises and falls rapidly, this is called a(n)...

Common source epidemic.

If the number of people who become ill during an epidemic rises gradually, this is called a(n)...

Propagated epidemic.

An experimental study in which neither the doctor nor the patient knows who is getting the actual treatment is called..

Double blind.

Because of the ubiquity of many microorganisms, it is necessary to use techniques that allow distinguishing them at the level of..

strain.

A technique used to distinguish between various strained of bacteria is...

RFLP

The publication of the CDC that reports new cases of reportable infectious diseases is titled..

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly

The World Health Organization (WHO) is part of the..

united nations.

WHO has targeted for elimination...

Polio, dracunculiasis, measles.

How has smallpox been eliminated from populations?

Through the use of vaccination.

A new serotype of Vibrio chlolerae, V. cholerae 0139, has picked up the ability to produce...

Capsules

Schistosomiasis has increased in areas where...

Dams have been built.

Approximately what percentage of hospitalized patients may develop a nosocomial infection?

5%

An infection acquired during hospitalization is referred to as..

Nosocomial.

Which of the following may be associated with nosocomial disease?

Enterococcus species, E. coli, Pseudomonas species, and S. aureus.

Which of the following contributes to nosocomial disease?

Susceptible population, hospital environment, other patients, and patient's own normal flora.

The member of the hospital staff who surveys the types and numbers of nosocomial infections is called the..

Infection control practitioner.

The guidelines used to minimize patient-to-personnel transfer of blood borne diseases are called..

Universal precautions.

Prevention of patient-to-personnel transmission of disease keys on limiting contact with...

Body fluids.

Which of the following is recommended by the Standard Precautions guidelines?

Glove use, handwashing, and face shield.

T/F
Generally, the smaller the infective dose, the lower the chance of disease.

True

T/F
The very young and the elderly are more susceptible to infectious disease.

True.

T/F
Diseases with long incubation periods are more likely to spread extensively.

True.

T/F
A gradual rise in numbers during an epidemic indicates a common source epidemic.

False

T/F
Cross-sectional surveys are very useful in establishing cause of a disease.

False.

T/F
A placebo is a mock drug.

True

T/F
In a double bind test the treating physician knows who is getting the actual treatment.

False.

T/F
Nosocomial infections are those acquired at a hospital.

True

T/F
Human population growth and expansion contribute to emergence of diseases.

True.

T/F
A fly may serve as a mechanical vector.

True

T/F
The portal of entry typically has little effect on the course of a disease.

False.

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