The process by which the brain creates a model of internal and external experience.
Ex: To be aware
An interdisciplinary field involving cognitive psychology, neurology, biology, computer science, linguistics, and specialists from other fields who are interested in the connection between mental processes and the brain.
Ex: EEG scans and MRI scans
Any brain process that does not involve conscious processing, including both preconscious memories and unconscious processes.
Ex: walking and chewing gum
Information that is not currently in consciousness but can be recalled to consciousness voluntarily or after something calls attention to them.
Ex: Dates of Last week
In classic Freudian theory, a part of the mind that houses memories, desires, and feelings that would be threatening if brought to consciousness. Many modern cognitive psychologists view the unconscious in less sinister terms, merely as a collection of mental processes that operate outside of awareness - but not typically suppressing information or working at odds with consciousness.
A common (and quite normal) variation of consciousness in which attention shifts to memories, expectations, desires, or fantasies and away from the immediate situation.
Ex: Daydreaming in class during a lecture
Physiological patterns that repeat approximately every 24 hours.
Ex. sleep and wakefulness cycle
A stage of sleep that occurs approximately every 90 minutes, marked by bursts of rapid eye movements occurring under closed eyelids; associated with dreaming.
Ex: When you are sleeping
Non-REM (NREM) sleep
The recurring periods, mainly associated with the deeper stages of sleep, when a sleeper is not showing raid eye movements.
Ex: Deep sleep
A condition in which a sleeper is unable to move any of the voluntary muscles, except those controlling the eyes; normally occurs during REM sleep.
Ex: When you are sleeping
A condition of increased REM sleep caused by REM-sleep deprivation.
Ex: Longer Dream
A sleep deficiency caused by not getting the amount of sleep that one requires for optimal functioning.
Ex: Staying up to Study
The story line of a dream, taken at face value without interpretation (from Freud).
Ex: You drempt of a skull
The symbolic meaning of objects and events in a dream; usually an interpretation based on Freud's psychoanalytic theory or one of its variants.
Ex: Skull means death
The most common of sleep disorders - involving insufficient sleep, the inability to fall asleep quickly, frequent arousals, or early awakenings.
Ex: tossing and turning in bed
A respiratory disorder in which the person intermittently stops breathing many times while asleep.
Ex: breathing apparatus
Deep sleep episodes that seem to produce terror, although any terrifying mental experience (such as a dream) is usually forgotten upon awakening; occur mainly in children; occur in Stage 4 sleep.
Ex: screaming in sleep
A disorder of REM sleep, involving sleep-onset REM periods and sudden daytime REM-sleep attacks usually accompanied by cataplexy.
Ex: sleeping in middle of class
Sudden loss of muscle control.
Ex: Can't move your arm
An induced state of awareness, usually characterized by heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and highly focused attention.
Ex: 2011 hypnosis at project grad.
A state of consciousness often induced by focusing on a repetitive behavior, assuming certain body positions, and minimizing external stimulation; may be intended to enhance self-knowledge, well-being, and spirituality.
Ex: Asian monks
Chemicals that affect mental processes and behavior by their effects on the brain.
Drugs that create hallucinations or alter perceptions of the external environment and inner awareness.
Highly addictive drugs, derived from opium, that can produce a profound sense of well-being and have strong pain-relieving properties.
Drugs that slow down mental and physical activity by inhibiting transmission of nerve impulses in the central nervous system.
Drugs that arouse the central nervous system, speeding up mental and physical responses.
The reduced effectiveness a drug has after repeated use.
Ex: tolerance to sleeping pills
A process by which the body adjusts to, and comes to need, a drug for its everyday functioning; goes hand-in-hand with tolerance.
A condition in which a person continues to use a drug despite its adverse effects - often despite repeated attempts to stop using the drug; may be based on physical or psychological dependence.
Ex: addicted to heroin
A pattern of uncomfortable or painful physical symptoms and cravings experienced by the user when the level of drug is decreased or the drug is eliminated.
Ex: quitting ciggarettes
A desire to obtain or use a drug, even though there is no physical dependence.
Ex: quitting ciggarettes
The theory that dreams begin with random electrical activation coming from the brain stem. Dreams, then, are the brain's attempt to synthesize this random activity.
Ex: brain thinks of fans so you dream of fans.