about 1815 to 1848, reaction against rationalism of Enlightenment, YOUR interpretations, religious nature, UNIQUE individual
Jean Jacques Rousseau
wrote Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind; wrote The Social Contract; wrote Confessions; believed that emotions as well as reason were important to human development but sent his own children to orphanages
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation; industrialization allowed for stable incomes and allowed for centralized support of art in cities
Workers who earned enough money to be able to become consumer of art and material goods following the Industrial Revolution; escapism became a huge hit when the Depression hit to escape harsh reality
Gas-lighting and curtain
allowed people to dim lights; allowed for lighting changes; used for special effects in background of plays and dance such as ghosts
Dr. Louis Vernon
In charge of new Paris Opera; under his direction, Paris Opera made a profit for the only time in its existence; slashed salaries of ballerinas to force them into mistresshood for fellow Jockey's
Gentlemen's club which indulged in fencing, horses, and mistresses; often took ballerinas with low incomes as mistresses
Foyer de la Danse
Studio behind the stage at the Paris Opera which is now used as a rehearsal stage and a reception venue but which was notorious in the 19th century (during the reign of Dr Véron) as the salon where members of the Jockey Club could meet dancers.
Robert le Diable
Opera created that incorporated a ballet in the 3rd act called ballet of the nuns
La Sylphide, 1832
choreographed by Filippino Taglioni and performed by one of the greatest ballerinas of the 19th century Marie Taglioni. One of the most famous Romantic Ballets., First true romantic ballet
Choreographer of Robert le Diable (1831) father of marie, Marie was a dancer and always looked like she was floating when dancing
-Famous for her incredible technique, lightness, and ethereal presence
-Introduced new costume design (bare neck/shoulders, tutu)
-Perfected dancing en pointe
associated with Danish-style ballet; equal roles for male and female dancers
-Her dancing was "warm and passionate"
-Dance was earthy, temperamental, fiery, vuluptuous
-Danced folk dances - most famous was Cachucha - Spanish using castanet, twists and turns; Known for her flair and theatricality
Performed by fanny elssler in jean corallis le diable, was Spanish and had some obscene gestures, colorful dress worn by elssler
Writer of Giselle - Dance Critic - Wrote against male dancers - Praised ballerinas for their sensuality and beauty - in love with Carlotta Grisi
Height of Romantic Ballet - Star: Carlotta Grisi - Choreographer: Jules Perrot (Carlotta's lover) & Jean Coralli - Written by: Gautier (who was in love with Grisi) - Act I (sunlit) - Act II (moonlit)
-Leading role in Giselle
-Combined techniques of Taglioni & Elssler
-Known for strength & lightness
Outstanding for the way he combined expressive movements with dance steps; , choreographed the ballet Giselle
was listed as the choreographer because he was widely respected - was known Perrot (more gifted) was collaborating with him; Choreographed the corps for Giselle
Ballet premeried in 1870, comic variation of La Sylphide and Giselle. Choreographed by Arthur Saint-Léon
Arthur Saint Leon
choreographer of Coppelia - died the year of the ballet from exhaustion - discovered Bozzacchi
created the role of Swanilda at age 16 - she died from a fever @ age 17
Interrupted first flush of success of Coppelia and the included the siege of Paris - which also led to the early death of Giuseppina Bozzacchi, on her 17th birthday - but eventually it became the most-performed ballet at the Opera Garnier.
Imperial Russian Ballet
Peter the Great wants respect from the west and imports fashion and dance from France
from its very beginning the ballet was entirely dependent upon this individual; it was his ballet, under the direct supervision and guidance of a court minister appointed by this individual and answerable to him
Jean Baptiste Lande
St. Petersburg Ballet School 1738 - Director of Imperial Theater - Official Patronage 1766 & Moscow 1806; , first dancing master that was brought to russia, from france
St. Petersburg to Leningrad to St. Petersburg
Capitals of Russia during various times of political influence; Leningrad during Bolsheviks and USSR, return to St. Petersburg pax-USSR
Maryinsky Theater to Kirov Theater
Different names but same theater under different political influences
Moscow, Bolshoi Theater
in Moscow - very flamboyant & expressive (opposite of Kirov Theater)
Most important figure in Russia in immediately pre-Romantic days. Did much to improve the repertory and teaching. 20 ballets, raised standards. Flying wires, pointe works.
(1822-1910) created the first ballet that would later be classified as classical ballet. He also held the position of Ballet Master in Chief to the Imperial Tsar in 1869. created Don Quixote and La Bayadere and many other works. Though he did not choreograph the original version of Swan Lake, he oversaw a new production of the ballet. was a prolific choreographer who "masterminded" Russian ballet through the end of the 19th century.
Daughter of the Pharaoh
inspired by Gautier's novel The Story of the Mummy - very complicated, spectacular, successful ballet - Aspica is the daughter - English Lord in sand storm goes into tomb & gets put into an opium dream where he becomes Tahor and saves Aspico from a lion - she falls in love with Tahor even though she is already engaged to a king - she jumps into the Nile river where the spirits come entertain her - she returns to land to get permission to marry Tahor but then he wakes up from his opium dream
a diversion or amusement; a short ballet or other entertainment performed between the acts of a play
Grand Pas de Deux
French for "big dance for two" - Entrée, Adagio duet, Male solo, Female solo, Coda - plot structure of Petipa
Petipa Styles of Movement
Classical, Character, Demi-Character, Mime
The Sleeping Beauty, 1890
Marius Petipa - 4 fairies for Aurora, did not invite the evil fairy - put a spell on Aurora @ 16 she would prick her finger on a spindle & fall asleep for 100 years - End of Act I pricks her finger - Act III is the wedding (divertissement, Grand Pas A Deux)
important Russian composer whose works are noted for their expressive melodies (1840-1893); composed score for Nutcracker, Sleeping Beauty
End of ACT I, Aurora partnered with 4 different princes, en pointe a rose is exchanged. Difficult.
The Nutcracker, 1892
Petipa & Tchaikovsky - was not successful at the time it came out - no trace of sensible dramatic action
Petipa's assistant that takes over - choreographs Snowflakes Act I of the Nutcracker - dies in 1901 - didn't produce anything more of importance except Swan Lake
Swan Lake, 1895
choreographed by Petipa & Ivanov - Odette (under a spell) & Odile look alike - Prince Siegfried (Odette saves other swans & tells him her tale) - his mother throws a ball for him to find a wife - Odile shows up as Odette & Prince commits his love to her
Black Swan Pas de Deux
scene where Odile shows up to the ball & dances with Prince Siegfried - very famous dance
The revolution that overthrew Russian Czar Nicholas I in 1917. Later established the Bolshevik government under Vladimir Lenin.
famous ballerina who formed her own company and toured 1910 - famous for portraying birds, insects, and plants - brought ballet (aristocratic art) to the common person (high schools, etc.)
The Dying Swan, 1905
choreographed by Fokine - star was Pavlova - composer was Camille Saint Saenz - two minutes long
a ballet company established in 1909 by the Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev. It created a sensation in Western Europe because of the great vitality of Russian ballet compared to French dance. The Ballets Russes became one of the most influential ballet companies of the 20th century, in part because of the ground-breaking artistic collaboration among choreographers, composers, and artists. That influence, in one form or another, has lasted to this day.
Russian ballet impresario who founded the Russian ballet and later introduced it to the West (1872-1929)
Designer. Influenced by Greek and Asian art. Costumes and sets full of bold colors. Decorative motifs that employed perspective painting. Successful with ballet. "sophisticated eclecticism". Teacher.
One of the artistic giants of the twentieth century. Helped found the Cubist and Abstract movements. During his life, 1881-1973, he worked in various media and is noted for scores of important works. His painting Guernica is one of the most powerful anti-war expressions of the modern era.
reform Russian Ballet - choreographed Dying Swan 1905 for Anna Povlova (2 minutes long) - accused of being influenced by Isadora Duncan - teacher & choreographer rather than a refined dancer
Fokine's 5 Major Principles
published in London Times 1914 - want to make "ballet a fully expressive art that mirrored life" - new movement for each dance - no mime (Petipa used so that the audience always understood) - use entire body (to be expressive) - no divertissement (no "fluff") - unity amongst the arts
called the most poetical of ballets of the 20th century. Premiered during first ballet russes season (1909)
ballet by Michel Folkine; 1910; based on "1001 nights"
Fokine - commoner wanted to have sex with Cleopatre - she said yes as long as he was put to dead the next day - she did
Fokine - starred Nijinsky - about a sad puppet who wanted his soul to come to life - belonged to evil sorcerer
Le Spectre de la Rose, 1911
Fokine - starred Nijinsky - about a woman who comes home from a ball and puts a rose on a table - falls asleep and dances with the spirit of the rose - the rose jumps out the window; most famous jump in dance history
Star male dancer of Ballets Russes; became chief choreographer for one year - 1913
Afternoon of a Faun, Rite of Spring, and Jeux. Rite caused a riot
any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact; Nijinsky had this illness
Afternoon of a Faune, 1912
Nijinsky choreographed - in the forest - nymphs shows up to flirt with the Faun - one of them drops her scarf, they all leave, and he masturbates into the scarf
French composer; uses harmony to reinforce stasis; Prelude to Afternoon of a Fawn (half man, half goat, simulated masturbation); concert work that became a ballet
Nijinsky choreographed - means "games" - about a trio (2 women, 1 man) - relief sexual tension through tennis
Rite of Spring, 1913
Nijinsky choreographed - rustic - sacrifice a virgin by making her dance to death
Major 20th C composer, Three famous ballets The Firebird, Petrushka, The Rite of Spring
1st male dancer to make an impression in United States. Danced with Dane Margo Fontain in the Royal Ballet; died of AIDS
The protection granted by a nation to someone who has left his native country as a political refugee.
United States choreographer (1930-1988) , reconstructed pieces of ballet russes in America died of aids
Started in nyc by robert joffrey
repertoire was eclectic and contemporary
reconstructed works from Diaghilev's Ballets Russes
Financially weak - often folded
moved to LA then chicago
choreographer of Parade & Three-Cornered hat - known for symphonic ballet, comedy satire, character dancing, and color
ballet with music by Erik Satie and a one-act scenario by Jean Cocteau. The ballet was composed 1916-1917 for Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. The ballet premiered on Friday, May 18th, 1917 at the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris, with costumes and sets designed by Pablo Picasso, choreography by Léonide Massine (who danced), and the orchestra conducted by Ernest Ansermet.
Three-Cornered Hat, 1919
Massine - parable about freedom - Picasso - aesthetic unity
Nijinsky's sister, choreographer, dancer, became leading dancer and choreographer in diaghliev's company
Sleeping Beauty, 1921
unsuccessful revival - Ballet Russes lose money
Les Noces, 1923
means "The Wedding" - arranged Russian Stravinsky wedding
Le Train Bleu, 1924
comedy - has sport movements - about a train taken to the beach where a plane flies over - spoof about Frenchman who wants to be very shallow American
1st principal dancer with Royal Ballet, choreographer-in-residence during the second year (1941) of Ballet Theater
French cabaret singer who became a famous designer - costumes - color pink (patented)
Prince of Wales
most eligible bachelor - do a wiggle before putting in golf
famous tennis player who took ballet (lover in Le Train Bleu)
composer of Le Train Bleu - influenced by jazz
United States dancer and choreographer (born in Russia) noted for his abstract and formal works (1904-1983); Apollo and Agon
confirmed that Balanchine was an experimentalist - Africanist principles in his rhythmic scores - turns not resolved as in ballet, they just stop - take "one" counts rather than "and" counts
music by Stravinsky, ancient Greek contest debate between forces.
Four Temperaments, 1946
waddling on their heels, legs straight - tap dance transition step - dances are about weight and being grounded, not defying gravity - jumps are about coming down, rather than going up - connection of Africanist dance & American modern dance
Embraces conflict, polyrhythmic, pelvis off centered, high affect juxtaposition (intenseness of feeling), ephebism (power, vitality), cool (intensity), improvisation
born in NY, raised in Boston, first exposure to dance in 1920, witness Diaghilev funeral, worked with Balanchine, established NYC ballet, passion for Japenese culture
New York City Ballet
Opened in 1948, artistic director Balanchines. Distinguished choreographers: Tudor, Frederick Ashton, Robbins...Permanent home New York State Theater at Lincoln Center
performed with New York City Ballet under Balanchine, later founded Dance Theatre of Harlem, first African American principle dancer
Dance Theater of Harlem
-Arthur Mitchell founder and artistic director
-1st black dancer to break color barrier for classical ballet
-America's 1st outstanding ballet company of black dancers
-started school with Karel Shook
-shaped by Balanchine
-Dancers known for warmth and vitality, genuine and reaching out to audience
American Ballet Theater
1937 Founded by Ballet Russe's Mikhail Mordkin as Mordkin Ballet- Repertory company- features choreography of many artists such as Adolph Bolm, Michel Fokine, Leonide Massine, Bronislava Jijinska, Balanchine and Agnes de Mille
beginning of modern dance, danced with bare feet, wore flowing Greek-style robe, died being strangled from a long-flowing scarf caught in a car wheel
Contemporary of Duncan's. Design orientation. Known for manipulation of costumes that would make flowing patterns and dance was non-emotional. Also did light design.
Ruth St. Denis
● Was inspired by a cigarette poster featuring the Egyptian goddess Isis to begin investigation Asian art and dance.
● Founded the Denishawn School of dancing and Related Arts with her husband Ted Shawn in 1915 in Los Angeles, California.
● Believed that dance should be spiritual instead of simply entertaining or technically skillful.
● Created the well-known Denishawn school with his wife Ruth St. Denis. They taught dancers diverse styles.
● With his wife they set up the foundations for the principal of Musical Visualization "a concept that called for movement equivalents to the timbres, dynamics, and structural shapes of music in addition to its rhythmic base".
● Created the Group "Ted Shawn and his Men Dancers" to combat the negative and effeminate connotation of male dancers in his American society, wanted male dancers to have a respected place in dance and show that they could be manly and dancers.
St. Denis and Ted Shawn's company that helps spread the gospel of dance from the constraints of ballet - opened a school in Los Angeles - brought dance to the middle class by supporting good health and virginal spirituality
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
known particularly for his long associations as musical director with Denishawn and Martha Graham.
one of the major figures in the development of modern dance, an American dancer, choreographer and teacher who created more than 150 works on a wide range of subjects from ancient Greek to modern American; contraction and release
Acts of Light, 1981
by Martha Graham - focuses on technique - used technique as her own language - inspired by when she moved to Santa Barbara as a child - choneo, straight out of technique class, running on the cliffs of Santa Barbara and the development of her technique
Pelvic contraction and release
Martha Graham explored use of breath to contract & releases the muscles of the pelvis to create a powerful, grounded, percussive, angular dance
Sharp powerful movement; angle
wrote "The Art of Making Dances" in 1931, Fall and Recovery, inspired by Bach and used his work in many piece, choreographed pieces without music, Passacaglia and fugue in C minor (showed fall and recovery)
Fall and Recovery
This is a dynamic way to use the space of the dance floor to a fuller extent
The Art of Making Dances
First book of choreography; published posthumously in 1959
previous member of Denishawn (left late 1920's) - developed a comedic mime aesthetic - shared a school with Humphrey for years - pioneer of modern dance
a pioneer of modern dance, established importance of the male dancer, created masculine movement style, founded own company in 1947; died of prostate cancer
Hungarian choreographer who developed Labanotation (1879-1958); Established the Choreographic Institute in Zurich
• Founded branches across Europe
• Kinetographie Laban=labanotation, primary movement
notation stilled used today in dance
• Contextualize dance with a movement choir
Danced in europe, raw emotion, stark, harsh, disturbing, medieval themes, dance with masks, really started working with time, space, and energy, taught Hanya Holm
Student of Mary Wigman. Opened a Wigman school in NYC in 1931, brought German modern to U.S. but Americanized her technique. Choreographed Broadway musicals- 'Kiss Me Kate' based on Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew
(1931-1989) A New York City dancer who created an American Dance Theater which trains dancers and performs worldwide; most famous work was Revelations and piece named Cry, in honor of his mother; lost battle to AIDS in 1989
● Last member of the group that helped found the modern dance movement.
● Amassed a growing collection of 133 dances.
● His work created the Paul Taylor Dance Company.
● Known for his innovative and sometimes controversial choreography.
● Still considered a cutting edge choreographer, and is one of the most prominent and renowned choreographers of the international dance community.
Radically new or original
A signature piece of Taylor's in which he and his pianist remain motionless for the duration of the music-less score by John Cage.
Choreographed by Paul Taylor; Modern dance work in one act with choreography by Taylor, music by Handel, and lighting by T. Skelton. Premiered 4 Aug. 1962 at Connecticut College, New London, by the Paul Taylor Dance Company with Taylor, Elizabeth Walton, Wagoner, Sharon Kinney, and Renee Kimball. A lyrical buoyant dance which at the time marked Taylor's stylistic break from the American avant-garde. Its choreography fuses the blunt power of modern dance with the elevation of ballet, and at the time was seen as a rejection of the twin poles of modern dance then prevalent-the darkly dramatic and the abstractly cerebral. It has entered the repertories of many companies including Royal Danish Ballet (1968), Paris Opera Ballet (1974), and London Festival Ballet (1985).
Dances have no linear development; no central focus on stage; a field of dancers where you can watch any dancer from any direction and decide for yourself where the focus of the dance is
music not expressive or communicative because it says nothing
invented prepared piano
Robert Ellis Dunn
teacher in Merce's studio who is remembered for creating a competitive environment filled w/ experimentation for new dance styles
works to question the complexities of real life
concerts organized by Dunn continued here until 1968; concert in 1962 considered to have begun the postmodernist movement
Innovative United States dancer and choreographer (born in 1941)
Modern Dance Choreographer-- mixed media extravaganza's celebrating the electronic age; choreographed Tensile Involvement
Tensile Involvement, 1953
Alwin Nikolais - had a lot of ribbons - very involved in the sounds - wearing skin colored clothes - drum music, elastic ropes and strings, all across stage
dance class at Dartmouth taught by Alison Chase, stunts, contortions, balance and leverage, men signed up for the class on a dare
Monkshood Farewell, 1974
Pilobolus - human jousting horses
Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the virus that causes AIDS
a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
Choreographers who died of AIDS
- Robert Joffrey, 59
- Alvin Ailey, 58
- Christopher Gillis, 42
- Rudolph Nureyev, 54
- Ulysses Dove, 49
Bill T. Jones
HIV, choreographed Still Here, organized survivor workshops
D-Man in the Water, 1989
work written at a time when one of Jones' company dancers, Demian Acquavella, nicknamed D-Man, was suffering from AIDS; a celebratory, affectionate work about the company defiantly remaining joyful, loving, productive, and cohesive in the face of oppression and tragedy.
based on Bill T. Jones' seminar workshops; swirling with arms out to side, spinning, stomping feet, flying
Choreography Deeply There
Deeply There, 1998
About a group of friends and neighbors during a final decline of a man
Gus Solomons Jr
founded the Gus Solomons Company/Dance, whose repertoire consisted of detailed and analytical compositions that were conceived as "melted architecture", drawing from experience as an architecture student at MIT
A Colombian-American modern dance choreographer known for his politically-charged productions depicting the black experience, notable productions include Missa Luba in 1965, Blues for the Jungle in 1966 (portraying life in Harlem), Las Desenamoradas in 1967
Considered one of the greatest of African American choreographers, and also bears the titles dancer, educator, and dance company director. After studying under Katherine Dunham and Martha Graham, went on to do solo work and choreograph his own works which center on the social issues, experiences, and everyday life of African Americans
inspired by afro-carribean movement and anthropolgy, dancer, choreographer, anthropologist, teacher, and writer; founded Ballet Negro; 20th century
Choreography is famous for its speed, force and eroticism; died of AIDS at the age of 49
music that combines spoken street dialect with cuts (samples) from older records and bears the influences of social politics, male boasting, and comic lyrics carried forward from blues, r&b, soul and rock and roll
in 1989, became the first African American to lead a major national political party when he was elected chairman of the Democratic Party.
dancer, choreographer, teacher, born 1930 in NY, began dancing senior year of HS, scholarship to New Dance group. studied with Primus. Professional debut in 1948, choreographed 1st pieces with group when 18, 1951 founded contemporary dance group
Russian dancer and choreographer; considered one of greatest male ballet dancers; became artistic director of American Ballet Theatre
choreographed "Lion King"; worked with untrained dancers and combined AFrican and Caribbean with ballet and modern
Lion King, 1998
Broadway production choreographed by Garth Fagan; eventually turned into an award winning family film
any of a variety of social dances performed by couples in a ballroom
predominately black, but whites attended
social dances were done
had to change the floor every three years because of the intense dancing
many whites went to go watch Black People Dance
an African American section of New York City. Many A/A writers and artists gathered in Harlem
African American social dance in the 1920s; spurred the Jitter Bug
a jerky American dance that was popular in the 1940s
Buddy Dean Show
1957 TV show (similar to the Corny Collins show from Hairspray), Lindy Hop dance; segregated; eventually shut down due to refusal to fully integrate; presented black music and dance on TV
Developed 1930's film fantasy with his daredevil and genius dance design
developed the stage style musical film into a more involved multi-shot fantasy film style with overhead shots
use of tiered set design, and pretty girl close up shots called the "Parade of Faces"
Actress, singer and tap dancer successful in early musicals...... "42nd Street"
Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers
were top musical stars of the '30s; appeared in musicals that were considered old-fashioned when they were made; displaced their characters' sexual desire into fighting with each other
1. hoofers: Gregory Hines, Savion Glover, intricate footwork
2. class acts: Fred Astaire, Ginger Rodgers, refined and elegant
3. flash acts: tap with acrobatics
4. soft shoe: skimming floor, producing soft & muted steps
high energy act of two african american brothers, Fayard and Harold, had a 'flash act' consisting of an acrobatic tap style, were in movies, only African Americans encouraged to mingle with audience (by audeince demand)
child actress could dance and sing very well, was able to keep up with Bill Robinson in tap dancing, was seen as the hope during the Great Depression.
Bill "Bojangles" Robinson
broke color barrier, developed stair dance, danced with Shirley Temple, made 'honorary mayor of Harlem',