Development of a physical need for a psychoactive drug.
affective disorder (mood disorder)
A condition in which a person experiences extremes of moods for long periods, shifts from one extreme mood to another, and experiences moods that are inconsistent with events.
A strong fear of being alone or away from the safety of home.
A pattern of continuous or intermittent drinking that may lead to addiction and that almost always causes severe social, physical, and other problems.
antisocial personality disorder
A long-term, persistent pattern of impulsive, selfish, unscrupulous, even criminal behavior.
A condition in which intense feelings of fear and dread are long-standing or disruptive.
An explanation for mental disorders that sees them as the result of a combination of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.
A condition in which a person alternates between the two emotional extremes of depression and mania.
body dysmorphic disorder
A somatoform disorder characeterized by intense distress over imagined abnormalities of the skin, hair, face, or other areas of the body.
A somatoform disorder in which a person appears to be (but actually is not) blind, deaf, paralyzed, or insensitive to pain.
cyclothymic personality (cyclothymic disorder)
An affective disorder characterized by an alternating pattern of mood swings that is less extreme than that of bipolar disorder.
False beliefs, such as those experienced by people suffering from schizophrenia or severe depression.
An approach that recognizes the roles of predispositions and situational factors in the appearance of psychological disorders.
A psychological disorder marked by a sudden loss of memory for one's own name, occupation, or other identifying information.
Conditions involving sudden and usually temporary disruptions in a person's memory, consciousness, or identity.
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
A dissociative disorder in which a person appears to have more than one identity, each of which behaves in a different way.
A pattern of depression in which the person shows the sad mood, lack of interest, and loss of pleasure associated with major depression but to a lesser degree and for a longer period.
fugue reaction (dissociative fugue)
A psychological disorder involving sudden loss of memory and the assumption of a new identity in a new locale.
generalized anxiety disorder
A condition that involves long-lasting anxiety that is not focused on any particular object or situation.
False or distorted perceptions of objects or events.
A strong, unjustified fear of physical illness.
major depression (major depressive disorder)
A condition in which a person feels sad and hopeless for weeks or months, often losing interest in all activities and taking pleasure in nothing.
An elated, active emotional state.
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder in which a person becomes obsessed with certain thoughts or feels a compulsion to do certain things.
Anxiety in the form of severe panic attacks that come without warning or obvious cause.
Long-standing, inflexible ways of behaving that become styles of life that create problems, usually for others.
An anxiety disorder that involves strong, irrational fear of an object or situation that does not objectively justify such a reaction.
Patterns of thinking and behaving that are maladaptive, disruptive, or uncomfortable for the affected person or for others.
A pattern of severely disturbed thinking, emotion, perception, and behavior that constitutes one of the most serious and disabling of all mental disorders.
Strong, irrational fears related to social situations.
Characteristics or conditions that can influence the appearance and form of maladaptive behavior, such as gender, age, and marital status; physical, social, and economic situations; and cultural values, traditions, expectations, and opportunities.
An approach to explaining mental disorder that emphasizes the role of factors such as gender and age, physical situations, cultural values and expectations, and historical era.
A psychological problem in which a person has numerous physical complaints without verifiable physical illness.
Psychological problems in which a person shows the symptoms of some physical (somatic) disorder for which there is no physical cause.
somatoform pain disorder
A somatoform disorder marked by complaints of severe, often constant pain with no physical cause.
Phobias that involve fear and avoidance of specific stimuli and situations such as heights, blood, and specific animals.
Problems involving the use of psychoactive drugs for months or years in ways that harm the user or others.