AP ENGLISH language and composition rhetorical devices
|anadiplosis||repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause|
|analogy||drawing a comparison in order to show a similarity in some respect|
|anaphora|| repetition of a word or phrase as the beginning of successive clauses|
"it was the best of times, it was the worst of times. It was the age of wisdom..."
|anastrophe||Inversion of the natural or usual word order|
|anithesis||a contrasting claim|
|aphorism||a concise statement of a truth or principle|
|apostrophe||a figure of speech in which one directly addresses an absent or imaginary person, or some abstraction|
|apposition||the act of positioning close together (or side by side)|
|appositive||A word or phrase that follow a noun or pronoun for emphasis or clarity|
|asyndeton|| the deliberate ommsions of conjunctions from a series of related independent clauses to create a forceful, concise statement.|
"I came, I saw, I conquered."
|balanced sentence||One in which two parallel elements are set off against each other like equal weights on a scale.|
|chiasmus|| A verbal pattern in which the second half of an expression is balanced against the first but with the parts reversed|
"ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country."
|clause||a grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb but is not a complete sentence|
|cumulative sentence||an independent clause followed by subordinate clauses or phrases that supply additional detail|
|dependent clause||a clause in a complex sentence that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence and that functions within the sentence as a noun or adjective or adverb|
|epanalepsis||repetition at the end of a clause of the word that occurred at the beginning of the clause|
|epistrophe|| ending a series of lines, phrases, clauses, or sentences with the same word(s) |
"This government of the people, by the people, and for the people..."
|ethos||an appeal to credibility|
|euphemism||An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant|
|ellipsis|| the omission of a word or phrase which is grammatically necessary but can be deduced for the context |
"Some people prefer cats; others, dogs."
|fallacy||a misconception resulting from incorrect reasoning|
|gerund phrase||Begins with noun form of verb ending in -ing, plus any modifiers or complements|
|independent clause||a clause in a complex sentence that can stand alone as a complete sentence|
|juxtaposition||placing two elements side by side to present a comparison or contrast|
|logos||an appeal to reason and logic|
|loose sentence||A type of sentence in which the main idea comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses.|
|parallelism||the use of a series of words, phrases, or sentences that have similar grammatical form|
|pathos||and appeal to emotion|
|periodic sentence||a sentence with several dependent caluses that precede the independent clause- so the main point is withheld until the PERIOD.|
|polysyndeton|| consecutive coordinating conjunctions even when they are not needed- renders the reader 'breathless'|
"He ran and jumped and skipped and laughed for joy"
|rhetorical question||a question asked for an effect, not actually requiring an answer|
|satire|| any piece of writing designed to make its readers critical of themselves, human beings, or their society|
Can inspire social reform
|simple sentence|| an independent clause- subject and verb.|
"Jane kicked the ball."
|syllogism|| a three part argument construction in which 2 premises lead to a truth|
"all human begins are mortal. heather is a human being. therefore, she is mortal"
|synecdoche|| part is used for a whole.|
"All hands on deck"
"The sad souls walked on"
"He got some new wheels"
|syntax|| the study of the rules of grammar that define the formation of sentences. |
is critical to the analysis of all the passages on the AP TEST!