The only process that can add new genes and therefore new variations to a species is _______.
Which statement below most accurately describes a phylogenetic tree?
D. A phylogenetic tree is a branching diagram used to illustrate a scientist's hypothesis about how divergence took place among evolutionary lines.
The sixth mass extinction event is likely being caused by _______.
A. human-induced events
Two organisms live in the same geographical area, are very similar genetically, and can breed with each other successfully. Which of the following statements is correct?
C. These organisms are members of the same species
Which of the following populations would be most vulnerable to extinction?
C. a small, endemic population
Which of the following would explain extinction of upwards of 90% of species in existence over a short period of time?
C. mass extinction events
An excellent example of selective or artificial breeding by humans is _____.
C. the diversity of dog breeds in the world today
A single, small population that only exists in one place on the planet is considered _____
Starting with the smallest level of ecological organization and moving towards the highest, the order should go organism, _________.
A. population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
A _____ is defined as the living and nonliving elements around an organism.
Heavy rains and mudslides cause a river to change course, isolating two groups of lizards from one another. Over a long period of time, ________.
E. The groups will probably diverge genetically, and speciation may occur.
The carrying capacity is _____.
D. the maximum population size that a given environment can sustain
Density-dependent factors ______.
D. have greater impact at higher population densities
Which of the following is a typical K-selected species adaptation?
C. parental care of the young
When looking at the distribution of a population, we might find a uniform distribution when ______.
D. individuals are competing for an even distributed resource such as space
Consider a population of fish in the ocean. Which of the following would be a limiting factor for such a population?
C. dissolved oxygen levels
What describes the number of individuals in a population per unit area?
a. population density
Which of the following is a step that Costa Rica took to safeguard its biodiversity?
D. It opened national parks and created protected areas so that close to 25% of its land is protected or reserved.
High population density can ______.
A. increase the incidence of disease transmission
Which of the following gives the major factors that determine a population's growth rate?
D. growth(birth) rate, death rate, emigration, immigration
The concept of "biosphere" refers to the fact that life has changed in response to the earth, but the earth has not changed in response to life.
The notion driving much of the current research on the origin of life assumes that _____.
B. life emerged out of the natural chemistry of early earth.
Catalysts ______ the _______ energy of a reaction.
A. reduce, activation
Every step of a biochemical pathway is controlled by a specific _____.
D. all of the above
Ecergonic reactions ________ run spontaneously and _____ energy.
A. do, release
If the reaction A+B---->AB is autocatalytic, what is the autocatalyst?
Autocatalysts, like living organisms, have a remarkable type of growth called _______.
Conditions on the early earth surface are thought to include _____ ultra violet light and ______ carbon dioxide than today.
D. higher, higher
Living organisms exhibit an autocatalytic biochemical pathway called ________.
D. none of the above
Which of the following statements MOST aptly summarizes the biological view of life?
E. living organisms are a unique form of chemistry
By 2.7 billion years ago, rocks formed that contained ________ indicating that well before that life existed that could __________.
C. iron dioxide, photosynthesize
If a cell is replicating exponentially, it starts as 1, becomes 2, and then 4, and then ______.
Which of the following can increase species richness globally?
Of the taxonomic levels below, two species that are in the same _____ are most closely relation evolutionarily.
Which of the following can change global species diversity?
D. speciation and extinction
The greatest diversity (numbers of different species) of organisms can be found in _______.
Global diversity exists in a number of patterns. The largest and most obvious of these is that biodiversity is _______.
B. greatest at the equator and drops as you move farther north or south
Paleontologists and ecologists agree that _____.
C. 99% of all species that have ever existed are extinct
The sixth mass extinction event _______.
B. is ongoing and has been caused by human disturbance
When a species declines in number, it also __________.
C. occupies less area than it once did
A species of lizard has gone extinct. This could be due to any of the following reasons except _________.
A. increased genetic diversity within the species
European rabbits were introduced into Australia and quickly spread, reproduced, and became a terrible pest. They eat up to $600 million worth of food and pasture crops annually, and have damaged the populations of many native plants and the populations of animals that eat the plants. Twice in the past 50 years, rabbit diseases have been introduced to try to control the population, with some success. This is a case where _________.
A. an invasive species has reduces the genetic diversity of indigenous species
The wood thrush makes its nest in woodlands in the northern and eastern United States. As patches of woods become smaller, increasing numbers of wood thrush nests have eggs laid in them by the brown-headed cowbird. Cowbirds live in open fields and are nest parasites; the female cowbird flies up to an unattended nest, quickly lays an egg in another bird's nest, and leaves the host parents to raise their "adopted" young. Wood thrushes are decreasing in numbers because ________.
B. habitat fragmentation makes it easier for cowbird parasitism to occur
Pharmaceuticals produced from wild species produce up to $150 billion in sales and save money lives each year. This is an example of ______.
A. ecosystem services
Maria loves to be outdoors. She hikes everyday in the woods, near the home that she shares with five pets and that is surrounded by mountains. Edward O. Wilson would argue that this is evidence of ______.
Biodiversity enhances human food security because it ______.
C. is a potential source of new food items or new genetic varieties of existing foods
Conservation biology is different from other fields of science discussed in the book because ______.
A. it is an applied and goal-oriented science, with implicit values and ethical standards
The Endangered Species Act is often a center of controversy because ____.
C. landowners are concerned that federal officials will restrict the use of private land if threatened or endangered species are found on it
In captive breeding programs, organisms are bred with the intent to _____.
B. release them to the wild
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) tries to prevent the extinction of species by _______.
B. asking countries to stop the importation of organisms or parts of organisms (like tiger bones) if they are endangered species
An umbrella species is best defined as ______.
D. a species that, if protected, will result in the protection of a large number of species that require the same habitat
How is community-based conservation different from more traditional approaches to conservation?
D. in community-based conservation, local people are involved with protecting the habitat, allowing them to still gain benefit from its resources
Biology offers two ways to understand biological diversity, __________ which studies the origins, diversification and classification of the diversity, and ___________ which studies how this extensive diversity survives, coexists and is distributed across the earth.
A. evolution, ecology
"Taxonomy" refers to the study of ______.
B. the classification of organisms.
The distribution of biomes is closely related to the distribution of _______.
Carolus Linnaeus developed his binomial system of classification __________ Charles Darwin proposed his idea of evolution by natural selection.
The lion is the same _______ but a different _______ than a leopard.
A. genus, species
the large predator most likely to go extinct in the 21st century is the _____.
E. Sumatran tiger
The correct binomial for the newly discovered species of Indonesian frogfish is _________.
B. Histiophryne psychadelica
Most tigers that kill people ___ eat them.
B. do not
When looking at phylogenetic tree, the Y-axis (vertical axis) is ____ and the branch points are _______.
D. time, speciation events
In constructing phylogenies, traditional classification _____ been an excellent guide.
Modern phylogenies reconstruction has been greatly improved by new information about ______.
A. gene sequences
For example, this new information (last question) has surprisingly revealed that _____ are more closely related to ______ than to ______.
D. crocodiles, birds, lizards
The structure of a protein is determined by the _______ of _______.
C. sequence, amino acids
The genetic code is used by the cell to convert gene ______ into protein _______.
B. sequences, sequences
Species are different because they each have unique genes, which are made of molecules of _____ containing different information.
The gene Osr2, when lacking in mice, causes the formation of extra teeth. This suggests that the gene, when functioning properly.
A. suppresses tooth formation
The gene that results in a red glow in the transgenic Ruppy was taken from _____.
D. a sea anemone
As a key ingredient in the recipe for life, and a kind of "natural capital", genes are considered _________.
Genes differ in their rates of change. when used for phylogenetic reconstruction, genes that change fast are good for studying _______ related species, genes that change slowly are good for studying _________ related species.
A. closely, distantly
Using DNA to create the Tree of Life confirmed the "Three Domain" view of the overall tree, where two of the three main branches of groups of _______.
As of 2010, the saga of the Colorado River's water resource allocation is being complicated by ________.
E. several years of drought coupled with the rapid growth of Las Vegas
An area that is drained by a river system is called its ______.
One-fifth of Earth's total freshwater supply is in ______.
The region of a lake where plants are able to attach to the bottom and still reach above the surface is known as the __________.
D. littoral zone
What caused the Aral Sea, the fourth largest lake on Earth, to lose four-fifths of its volume in 40 years?
D. over consumption by cotton farmers
The greatest use of fresh water worldwide is _______.
A farmer wakes up one morning and sees a large circular area of land on his farm that is sunken. What may be the problem?
A. The groundwater in the area around the farm has been over pumped.
What type of irrigation method wastes as little as 10% of the water applied to the plants?
C. drip irrigation
In order to deal with our water problems, we can either increase _______ or reduce _______.
A. supply; demand
The United States and Europe have decreases public water use in the past 20 years by _________.
A. reducing the demand for water with conservation methods
Which of the following types of pollution is most responsible for large amounts of death worldwide because of unsafe drinking water?
C. pathogen pollution
In a municipal water treatment plant, the primary treatment step consists of _________.
E. letting sewage sit in large tanks so suspend solids settle out
Most of the productivity of the ocean occurs in (on) the ____________.
B. uppermost layer of the ocean called the photic zone
E. of ocean water results in areas of high primary productivity at the ocean surface
Kelp are ________.
D. large algae that protect shorelines from erosion, and supply shelter and food for invertebrates and fish
What type of farming has led to the destruction of mangroves?
Currently, the greatest ecological crisis facing marine food webs is _______.
E. over harvesting
A 2003 study reported that _____% of large-bodied fish and sharks were lost in the first decade of industrialized fishing.
E. refers to the accidental capture of animals
Which ocean management strategy has a goal of setting aside areas of the ocean to be free of human interference?
D. ecosystem-based management
"Allopatric" speciation refers to reproductive isolation of populations by
A. physical barriers
Gene duplication ________ genetic variation and natural selection ________ it.
C. increases, decreases
Some Creationists argue that while natural selection certainly can and does change the traits of species, 6,000 years is not long enough for it to have generated the diversity of life that we currently see. Biologists ______.
Evolution is defined as the change in ________ in a species over time.
For natural selection to cause, adaptive evolution, favored (selected) variation must be ______.
For natural selection to result in adaptive evolution, differences in ________ between individuals must be due to the differences in their _______.
E. fitness, genes
Same Pile, a student at West Jessamine High School, died a couple weeks ago due to evolution that had occurred in _________.
C. a staph bacteria
The most recent research suggests that all of our dog breeds were a result of domestication (artificial selection) of the wild _________ which most likely occurred in ___________.
D. wolf, Middle East
The rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance in many infectious diseases in response to overuse of antibiotic drugs world-wide has been a strong incentive to drug companies to increase investment in new types of antibiotics.
The human arm and the whale flipper are considered __________ organs.
Biologists are fascinated by the quirks of organismal design, the "historical" aspects of organisms that seem like they could easily be more efficiently constructed. Some examples we looked at include (careful!)
C. the length of vas deferens
Like many island species, the kiwis of ________and other unique species there are endangered by human actions, particularly introduced non-island species.
A. New Zealand
My favorite example of what appears to be inefficient design in organisms is that so many plants are green. The argument for why green is an unexpected color for photosynthesizers includes which of the following points.
B. important photosynthetic pigments absorb little in the green-yellow wavelengths
Biologists think that the current level of diversity, indeed the diversity at any point in the past, boils down to an interaction between ____________ and ___________.
A. speciation rates, extinction rates
Based on the fossil record, compared to the number of species alive today, the number that are extinct is ________, but there may be ________ now than at any time before.
D. more, more
Adaptive radiation is thought to be an evolutionary response to an adaptive opportunity (eg. a sustained increase in food resources) created by ________.
E. a, b & c
The adaptive radiation of mammals is thought to be primarily a result of an adaptive opportunity caused by ________.
B. a mass extinction
The Hawaiian Honeycreepers are an especially interesting example of adaptive radiation because of the correspondence between the appearance of new species groups and the birth of new islands.
Originally considered a flaky hypothesis, there is now broad based evidence consistent with an asteroid impact near the Yucatan peninsula prompting an adaptive radiation ___________.
B. during the Cretaceous period
Regarding the evolution of whales, evidence supports that __________ are more closely related to ___________ than to _____________.
D. camels, whales, horses
The Kingdom that includes TWO entire Domains is ______.
The key method for building the family tree of life is deciding which of the currently existing species constitute ancestors (primitive) of which other currently existing species (advanced).
The notion of a cleanly branching tree of life, where species are separate and divide to create new species, may not describe evolution in Prokaryotes very well, because of the following feature _________.
C. genetic exchange
Autotrophs use _________ as a carbon source.
D. carbon dioxide
An interesting trend in bacterial evolution is that __________ tend to evolve from __________.
B. parasites, decomposes
Eukaryotes include all of the following Kingdoms excepts
The kingdom of organisms that includes many small, even single celled, organisms yet have cells with true nuclei containing DNA and various organelles is _______.
The well established theory of the endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotic organelles describes the bacterial origin of mitochondria that specialize in ________ and chloroplasts that specialize in ___________.
E. respiration, photosynthesis
UK researchers are investigating the potential of algae to absorb carbon dioxide from fossil fuel emissions by exploring as many of the roughly ____________ known species as possible.
Sexual reproduction involves the production of _________ gametes when diploid cells undergo a cell division called _________.
B. haploid, meiosis
One generalization about complex life cycles that seems to hold up is that large, multicellular organisms need to be diploid, and the haploid phase is restricted to small, short-lived temporary stages.
The following statement about Artemisinin is FALSE:
D. malaria cannot become immune to it
In sexual reproduction, organisms make genetically variable gametes by mixing genes from two _________ and these gametes then make even more genetically variable zygotes by fusing with ________ from other individuals ("outcrossing").
D. parents, gametes
One hypothesis for the adaptive function of sexual reproduction is that multiple harmful mutations can be combined in a single individual and thus be more effectively eliminated by natural selection.
Algae and plants are in separate Kingdoms because they evolved photosynthesis independently.
Of the following list, the group most responsible for putting the "fuel" in "fossil fuel" is the ________.
Today, the most widespread type of plant is also the most recently evolved. They are the _______.
Of the fungi, Lichens are unusual because they are ____________.
The largest documented single organism is in the kingdom __________.
The eye of the fish and the octopus are ________ except for the structure _______.
B. similar, retina
Since 2009, for the first time ever more people in the world were living in _____ areas than _____ areas.
C. urban; rural
What percentage of the U.S. population lives in suburbs today?
When looked at nonjudgementally, sprawl can be defined as __________.
D. having the land cover of a city grow much faster than its population
Any considerations of the true costs of sprawl must include _________.
E. increased use of fossil fuels
Urban growth boundaries tend to decrease _____ cost and increase ______ within their boundaries.
D. infrastructure; housing
Which of the following is an example of a "new urbanist" neighborhood?
D. a neighborhood in which people can live, work, eat, and shop all within walking distance
Which of the following approaches help congested cities best deal with the problems related to transportation?
C. provide access to rail and bus transportation in the inner city or other high-density areas
Which of the following is a positive effect that cities have on the environment?
D. Cities give people places to live with smaller land use
A resource sink is _________.
D. an area that produces almost none of the things that it needs
People who seek to improve resource sustainability of our cities urge us to _______.
D. use renewable energy sources and recycle materials
How do resource managers achieve maximum sustainable yield?
D. They keep the population at 50% of the carrying capacity thus maximizing the growth rate.
Which of the following management practices attempts to minimize ecological impact by allowing some trees in a forest to grow to maturity?
A. ecosystem-based management
_____% of Earth's land area is currently covered by forest.
Which of the following is NOT an ecosystem service provided by pristine forests?
D. land for agriculture
Second-growth forests ______.
E. are forests that establish themselves after virgin timber has been removed from an area.
Why do developing nations impose few or no restrictions on logging?
E. They are desperate for economic development.
Which off the following forestry practices would best conserve biodiversity?
A. using a selection system to get uneven-aged stands
The latest information tells us that salvage logging _______.
E. tends to produce more severe wildfires
________ are organizations that purchase land to preserve it in its natural condition.
A. Land trusts
What is the SLOSS dilemma?
D. whether to make a few, large reserves or many small reserves