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Andrew Jackson

The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.

John C. Calhoun

(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class. Jackson's vice president at one point.

Henry Clay

Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however. He proposed the Missouri compromise which admitted Missouri as a slave state.

Black Hawk

The leader of the Illinois tribes of Indians in the 1830's. When the Indians were uprooted, and forced out of their homes, he led the Indians in resisting the move. However, he wasn't powerful enough, because in 1832 they were brutally defeated, and forced to move into Oklahoma.

Nullification

the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress

John Quincey Adams

One of four major candidates on the ballot for the Presidential Election of 1824. He was elected president against popular opinion in favor of Jackson.

Daniel Webster

Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.

Nicholas Biddle

He was an American financier who was also president of the Bank of the United States. He was also known for his bribes. He was in charge during the bank war, where Jackson refused to deposit federal funds, which bled the bank dry. He also showed the corruption of the bank.

common man

a political leader who worked his way up to the top from the bottom. Andrew Jackson was the model common man. He had been orphaned, so he fought in the Revolutionary War at age thirteen. In the War of 1812, he became a hero and launched his political career soon after. He was like the rest of the country, and that's why they liked him so much. The common man began to take over during the Jacksonian Democracy.

rotation in office

Beginning in 1829, Jackson invoked this wholesale practice as his guiding principle, saying plainly that "no one man has any more intrinsic right to office than another."

spoils system

The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale.

wildcat banks

name given to speculative Western banks

revolution of 1828

Jackson's election showed shift of political power to "the common man" (1828), when the government changed hands from john quincy adams to jackson

Tariff of abominations

The bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings. When congress passed this new tariff bill, it was originally supported by southern congressmen in order to embarrass the administration. the finished bill, however, included higher import duties for many goods which were bought by Southern planters.

South Carolina Exposition

Vice-President Calhoun anonymously published the essay South Carolina Exposition, which proposed that each state in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress. It was written in reaction to the Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped the South of its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the tariff was not revoked; Calhoun suggested state nullification as a more peaceful solution.

National Republicans

After the 1824 election, part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830's.

Twelfth Amendment

Dictates that electors will cast separate ballots for President and Vice President; in the event of no clear winner, the House will select the President and the Senate the Vice-President.

"King Mob"

Nickname for all the new participants in government that came with Jackson's presidency. This nickname was negative and proposed that Jackson believed in too much democracy, perhaps leading to anarchy

"Corrupt bargain"

In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.

Tariff of 1832

The Tariff of 1832 was a protectionist tariff in the United States. It was passed as a reduced tariff to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by southerners and other groups hurt by high tariff rates. Southern opposition to this tariff and its predecessor, the Tariff of Abominations, caused the Nullification Crisis involving South Carolina. The tariff was later lowered down to 35 percent, a reduction of 10 percent, to pacify these objections.

Seminole Indians

They lived in Florida. They waged a seven years war against the Americans to try and remain in the east instead of being forcibly removed to the west. They were tricked into a truce where their chief Osceola was captured. Most were moved to Oklahoma while others remained hidden in the everglades.

Specie Circular

issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.

"Trail of Tears"

Forced march of 20,000 members of Cherokee tribe to their newly designated "homeland" in Oklahoma. Federal troops forced the Cherokees westward in this 1838 event, which one out of every five Native Americans dying from hunger, disease, or exhaustion along the way.

Force Bill

1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.

Indian Removal ACt (1830)

Signed into law by President Andrew Jackson, strongly supported by the South whom was eager to gain access to the lands inhabited by the "Five Civilized Tribes." (Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles) Though the act was intended to be voluntary removal, significant pressure was put onto the tribes' chiefs to vacate and led to the inevitable removal of most Indians from the states

"pet" banks

State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.

Five Civilized Tribes

Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion

Nullifiers

short-lived political party in South Carolina by John C. Calhoun; supported the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that states could nullify laws within their borders

Unionists

South Carolinians who disagreed with the decision to secede from the Union.

Speculation

The panic of 1837 was a symptom of the financial sickness of the times. its basic cause was rampant speculation promoted by a mania of get rick quicksim. Gamblers in western lands were doing a land-office business on borrowed capital, much of it in the shaky currency of wildcat banks. the speculative craze spread to canals, roads, railroads, and slaves.

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