Mod 8 Chapter 11 Dental
|Oral Cavity (cavum oris)||Oval-shaped cavity.|
|Vestibule||The outer, smaller portion surrounded by the lips, cheeks, gums and teeth.|
|Mouth|| Primarily responsible for the introduction of air, food, and other substances into the body. |
Also used for vocalization and speech. The opening of the mouth is connected to the pharynx and the larynx at the back of the mouth.
|Mucus||liquid containing mucin, leukocytes, inorganic salts, epithelial cells, and water|
|3 main parts of salivary glands supply saliva to the mouth:|| 1. Paratoids|
|Palates||The hard and soft palates form the roof of the mouth.|
|Hard palate||Toward the front and is so named because it is a hard bony structure. It is formed by portions of the maxillary and palatine bones.|
|Soft palate|| Rear portion of the mouth and composed mostly of muscle.|
Soft palate is aided in this endeavor by the uvula, the small muscular projection that is suspended in the center, posterior portion of the mouth.
|Tongue||A muscular organ that lies on the floor of the moth and continues partway into the pharynx.|
|The surface of the tongue is covered with a mucus membrane.||A mucus membrane also attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth, the side wall of the pharynx, and the epiglottis.f|
|the surface of the tongue is covered by Papillae (tiny nipple-like protuberances)|| *Filiform papillae- very slender and are situated at the end of the tongue|
* Fungiform papillae- broad and flat papillae and resemble a fungus.
*Circumvallate papillae- large bumps found near the base of the tongue, at the back of the mouth. Vshaped.
* Custatory papillae- Possess a taste bud.
|Gum or Gingiva||Firm but soft tissue that surrounds the alveolar process and the mandibular and maxillary bones.|
|Alveolar process||Portion of the mandible or maxilla that contains the tooth socket.|
|Jaw consists of two bones.||The maxilla(2) and the mandible|
|Maxilla||form the skeletal base of most of the upper face the roof of the mouth, the sides of the nasal canvity and the floor of the orbit.|
|Mandible||Nonfixed(movable) which allows for not only biting and chewing food, but for speech, vocalization and opening and closing of the mouth.|
|Temporomandibular Joint||Lower jaw is hinged to the uppper jaw by a sliding joint|
|Gingivitis||Inflammation of the gums. It may include swelling, redness ,pain, bleeding or difficulty in chewing.|
*Caused by improper dental hygiene, dentures or dental appliances or improper occlusion(closure)of the teeth.
*Occasionally gingivitis accomplanies upper respiratory infections or deseases such as scurvy or metallic poisioning.
|Periodontitis||Inflammation of the periodontal tissues.|
|Periodontosis||Any degenerative disease of the perodontal tissue|
|Stomatitis||Inflammation of the mouth.|
|Cheilitis|| Inflammation of the lips.|
Caused by chronic and excessive exposure to the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.
|Cleft palate|| A deep fissure of the palate. It may involve the soft palate, the hard palate, the lip, or all three.|
Congenital defect due to failure of fusion of embryonic facial process, resulting in a fissure through the palate.
|Humans have four types of teeth:|| Incisors|
|Incisors||Located at the front of the mouth and have a sharp edge that is used for biting. The normal adult has eight incisors, four on the top and a matching set of four on the bottom.|
|Canines or Cuspids(located behind the incisors)||Used for tearing and piercing, and the normal adult has four, one behind The third tooth from the center of the mouth to the back of the mouth. These are the front teeth that have one rounded or pointed edge used for bitingeach set of incisors.|
|Premolars or Bicuspids (located behind the cuspids)||Have two(bi-) cusps or grinding protrusions.|
|Molars or Tricuspids (located behind premolars)||Have 3 cusps. Used for grinding.|
|Normal adult||has 32 teeth.|
|Deciduous teeth (primary)|| number to 20 and apply to children. |
However, the deciduous teeth are lettered rather than numbered to avoid confusion with the adult numbering system.
|The mouth may be divided into either quadrants or sextants.|| Quadrant- one quarter of the two dental arches or one half of each arch. |
Sextant- One third of a dental arch.
|Each tooth is divided into three parts:|| 1. Crown-portion of the tooth that shows above the gum|
2. Neck- portion covered by the gum which links the crown to the root.
3. Root- Portion that is embedded in the bone.
|Pulp cavity||extreme center of the tooth|
|Root Canal||portion of the pulp chamber that carries the blood vessels from the tooth socket to the tooth itself.|
|Pulp||is made up of connective tissue that congtains a network of capillaries.|
|Capillaries||supply blood nourishment to the tooth.|
|Dentin||surrounds the pulp. forms the bulk of the tooth. Sometimes called the ivory.|
|Apex of the tooth|| The terminus or end of the root. |
The root canal connects the pulp chamber with the apex.
|In the root and neck of the tooth||the dentin is covered with cementum.|
|Cementum|| *Bone like material.|
*The cementum forms a junction with the enamel to seal off the exposed portion of the tooth (the crown)
*Hardest substance in the human body
|Each tooth has five surfaces:||1. lingual (Li)-nearest the tongue|
2. mesial (M)- nearest the midline
3.distal (D)- nearest the surface farthest away from the midline.
Anterior also have:
4. labial (La,L)- nearest the lip
5. incisal(I)- the biting edge or surface
Posterior also have:
4: buccal(B)- nearest the cheek
5. occlusal(O)- the biting surface
|Bruxism||Grinding of the teeth|
|Dentalgia||A toothache or pain in the tooth.|
|Dental plaque||A mass of microorganisms that grows on the exposed portions of the teeth and may spread under the gum line.|
|Calculus||calcified dental plaque|
|Dental Caries or Cavities|| Holes or decayed portions of the tooth.|
1.Simple Cavities-Involve only one surface of a tooth.
2.Compound Cavities-Involve 2 surfaces of a tooth
3.Complex Cavitites-Involve 3 or more surfaces of a tooth.
|When you look at the tooth chart,||you're looking into a persons mouth with the jaws open. You're facing the person so their upper right jaw will be on the left of this image.|