Chapter 16: Culture and Society In The Age Of The Scientific Revolution

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Paracelsus

physician who said that diseases had specific causes and cures, and were not from "an imbalance of humors"

Francis Bacon

developed the scientific method

cabala

Derived from a system of Jewish thought, which suggested that the universe might be built around magical arrangements of numbers.

The Structure of the Human Body

Written by Vesalius in 1543.

Andreas Vesalius

a Flemish surgeon who is considered the father of modern anatomy (1514-1564)

Nicolus Copernicus

Polish astronomer and mathematician; believed in a sun-centered conception of the universe

1582

Calendar reform of Pope Gregory XIII

Brahe

A Danish astronomer and recorded planet movement for decades.

Kepler

German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion (1571-1630)

Galileo

This scientist formulated the experimental method and using this, came up with the law of inertia, among several discoveries related to the moon

1597

Galileo admits his discoveries only make sense it earth moves also.

1616

Catholic Church warns Galileo not to defend Copernicus

1632

Galileo publishes his thoughts on the movement of the planets

1633

Galileo Galilei forced to recant his support of heliocentrism

1638

Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences (Galileo)

1628

Publication of The Motion of the Heart and Blood by William Harvey

Sir Isaac Newton

1643-1727. English physicist, mathmetician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian. Published work in 1687 describing universal gravitation, and the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics.

Royal Society of London

the leading English scientific organization, made up of leading merchants, planters and even theologians, all devoted to the discoveries of scientific ideas.

The Principia

A book published by Newton in 1687, in which most of its research and thinking had taken place 15 years earlier. It was the basis of much scientific work for centuries.

Descartes

"I think, therefore I am."

Epistemology

study of knowledge

New Atlantis

1623 Sir Francis Bacon expressed his aspirations and ideals; utopian novel was his creation of an ideal land where "generosity and enlightenment, dignity and splendour, piety and public spirit" were the commonly held qualities of the inhabitants of Bensalem

propagandist

someone who spreads ideas

Mannerism

Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space.

Baroque

Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.

Classicism

a movement in literature and art during the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe that favored rationality and restraint and strict forms

Rembrant

Baroque , was the greatest Dutch artist of the period, who would paint portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants

Caravaggio

Italian painter noted for his realistic depiction of religious subjects and his novel use of light (1573-1610) Baroque

Peter Paul Rubens

prolific Flemish baroque painter

Diego Valazquez

Spanish painter. Painted the Surrender of Breda. Baroque

The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa

Sculpture Gian Lorenzo Bernini 1646

Shakespeare

English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)

Cervantes

Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)

Blaise Pascal

French philospher/scientist/mathematician who invented the calculator and worked with probability, conic sections. Famous in math texbooks for his "triangle" of numbers.

Pensees

Pascal's book that described his feelings about keeping science and religion united, wanted to show christianity doesnt have to be contrary to reason.

1662

English Royal Society

Philosophical Transactions

journal published which documented experiments and used to communicate with other scientists by the English Royal Society;the prototype for medical journals

1666

The French Academie de Sciences

el greco

Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color (1541-1614)

neostoicism

inspired by the ancient Stoics' emphasis on self-knowledge and a calm acceptance of the world. The most influence of the Neostoics was Justus Lipsius.

Bernini

Italian sculptor and architect of the Baroque period in Italy

Monteverdi

Italian composer, violinist, and singer who wrote the first dramatically viable opera, 'Orfeo'

seigneurial reaction

The nobility's reassertion of their rights on land as a result of decreasing incomes and increasing costs of living; led to peasant discontent as communal lands were lost and landlords raised lands

constables

When English towns started to grow, volunteers that took turns looking out for their neighborhoods were called...

charivari

A dramatic example of community intervention prevalent in Europe and the United States until the early nineteenth century. It was a noisy public demonstration intended to subject wayward individuals to ridicule and punishment

witch hunts

spread by religious reformers' preachings about the Devil and severe economic hardships (1560-1660)

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