Chapter 11-12 Study Guide

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They became used very little but were still there. The active routes were not used as much and became dirty and old fashioned.

What happened to the silk roads after the decline of the Han and Roman empires?

He viewed it as good and that the Christians were becoming free and everyone else was dying.

What was St. Cyprian's view of the epidemic of 251 C.E. ?

Roman Bishops/ 4 patriarchs-- Bishops-- members of church

What was true of the early hierarchy of Christian church?

Constantine

Who was emperor who allowed Christians to practice their faith openly for the first time in the Roman empire ?

They pressured Romans to move and they took over their land. They also destroyed their cities and killed many people.

How did the invading Huns contributed to the fall of the western Roman empire?

tried to promote dualist views. The views were Good vs. Evil, Light vs. Dark, and Spirit vs. Matter
Ascetic lifestyle.

What did Manicheism promote?

It blended Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism

Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, promoted a syncretic blend of what religions?

China, Rome, Africa, Egypt, India, Anatolia

The monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean tied together whom in a maritime trade route?

Find allies to fight against the Xiongnu

In 139 B.C.E., the Chinese emperor dispatched Zhang Qian to central Asia to do what?

merchants

Who were the principal agents for the spread of Buddhism over the silk roads?

Han Empire

The information that Zhang Qian brought back encouraged Han Wudi to destroy the Xiongnu and lay the foundations for the

Berenice

What was the most important port on the Red Sea, constructed by the Ptolemics?

Chang'an

The easternmost point of the silk roads was the Han capita

Monsoon Winds

What was a key element in establishing trade across the Indian Ocean?

Taklamakan

Which desert was one of the most dangerous spots along the silk roads? Its name means "he who enters does not come back out."?

Antioch/Tyre

The land route of the silk roads ran from the Han capital of _Chang'an_ to the Mediterranean port of

China

In the ancient world, the main producer of silk was

Rajas

The expanding influence of India was shown by the fact that Southeast Asian kings called themselves

Gregory the Wonderworker

Christianity was carried to Anatolia during the third century C.E. by

A group of Christians who followed Nestorius and believed in the human part of Jesus more than the devine par

Who were the Nestorians?

"elect"

Devout Manichaeans, who abstained from marriage and sexual relations and who devoted their lives to prayer and fasting, were called the

Marcus Aurelius

In 180 C.E. smallpox claimed the life of the Roman emperor

Third (40 mil)

By around the year 600 C.E., the ravages of epidemic diseases had caused both the Mediterranean and Chinese populations to fall by at least a

Where the northern invaders took over China and fused with them and became one

What does the term sinicization refers to?

Diocletian

The Roman Empire was divided into two parts by whom?

They were the four officials of the Roman empire who emerged after Diocletian split the empire. They reported to Diocletian and were given lieutenants to help them.

Who were the tetrarchs?

Alaric

The leader of the Visigoths who sacked Rome in 410 C.E. was

Romulus Augustolus

In 476 C.E., the Germanic leader Odovacer brought an end to the western half of the Roman Empire when he overthrew whom?

Eastern half

After the collapse of the western half of the Roman Empire, imperial authority survived for another thousand years in the

Theodecius

In 380 C.E., Christianity was proclaimed the official religion of the Roman Empire by emperor

platonic thought

St. Augustine made Christian thought more appealing to the educated classes by harmonizing it with

as the only sources of established and recognized authority, the popes and bishops organized governments and defenses for their communities as Roman imperial authority crumbled

In the end, why did the popes win supreme control of the church?

It was feared because of it's Persian influence and that it would influence others to follow the same route. Also that it pressured other religions.

Why was Manichaeism feared by imperial states?

Internal Problems. Land distribution

What was the key reason for the collapse of the Han Dynasty?

Silk Roads and Monsoon Winds

What two developments c.100-500 C.E. spurred the development of long distance trade.

Han or Greeks

The Roman concept of "paterfamilias" as a means of providing order in society was closely tied to what other civilization's patriarchal structure?

Going to Court

About 55 C.E., Paul of Tarsus traveled from a port in Palestine to Rome for what reason?

Kings

The society of the Etruscans was ruled by

Tacticus

Who wrote on the corruption in the early Roman empire?

He was a roman citizen and appealed his case.

Why was Paul's case transferred to Rome ?

Etruscans

During its early history, Rome was dominated by the

plesbians

In an effort to alleviate social tensions what group was allowed to elect two and then later ten tribunes?

Sparta

The Roman policy of toleration and respect for conquered peoples was most similar to the

Sicily

During the Punic Wars, the Romans first fought the Carthaginians over the most important source of grain in the western Mediterranean. Where was it?

A protective screen made by Roman troops holding their shields above their heads to protect themselves.

What was the testudo ?

Large farms with many slaves to work on them.

What were Latifundia ?

Tiberius Gracchus

The tribune whose call for land reform led to his assassination in 132 B.C.E. was

A Roman general who tried to take Rome and restore it to it's state of appreciation. He tried to take it over and placed the city under military occupation and hunted down political enemies. He died in 86 BCE.

Who was Gaius Marius?

Sulla

The leader, supported by the Roman aristocrats, who led a slaughter of more than ten thousand of his political enemies was

favored liberal policies and social reform

In regard to political philosophy, Julius Caesar favored

Cleopatra and Mark Antony

Augustus was able to reunify the empire after defeating his main rivals, who were

Golden Age/ Pax Romana

The reign of Augustus inaugurated a period known as the

Twelve Tables

What were the foundations of Roman law ?

Mediterranean Sea or "Our Sea"

When the Romans used the words mare nostrum they referred to

1/3

By the second century C.E., how much of the total population of the Roman Empire was represented by slaves

Mars

Zeus was to Jupiter as Ares was to

Stoicism

The Roman thinker Marcus Tullius Cicero was best associated with what Hellenistic school of thought?

A god of light, truth, and honor, the central figure of the cult of Mithraism but probably of Persian origin. He was also associated with merchants and the protection of warriors.

Who was Mithras ?

Jews of Palestine

From 66 to 70 C.E. the Romans fought a bloody war with the

The anointed one

"Christ," which meant

Split into 3 Kingdoms

What happen immediately after the dissolution of the Han empire in 220 C.E., in China?

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