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Advertising is not a ______ but a ______ _______ in America.

medium; support industry

The digital transmission of written words, audio, and video are translated and stored as what?

bits

During the Iraq War, what was the meaning of the word "embedded?"

This term was used to describe journalists who were allowed to cover the war on the front-lines, supervised by the military.

During what were reporters first accredited as "war correspondents" by the government?

The Civil War

Historian Daniel Boorstin said that advertising in the US features what types of characteristics?

repetition, advertising style, and ubiquity.

How do advertisers determine where to run their ads?

They use a formula based on the cost of reaching 1,000 people.

How long were the first network TV newscasts?

15 minutes long

In a practice adopted from radio, early television programs usually carried __________ _________.

direct sponsorship

A study of news stories carried in The Wall Street Journal found that ______ of the stories came from press releases.

nearly half

What are the Intellectual Property Rights?

These concern the rights of creative people to be compensated for the use of their work.

What did the Public Relations Society of America do?

They designed a code of ethics for PR professionals.

What does Herbert J. Gans says about writing news values?

He says that responsible capitalism means open competition will create increased prosperity for everyone.

What does the Federal Trade Commission do?

They oversee the advertising in America and can order an advertiser to stop a deceptive ad campaign.

What is "viral marketing?"

This refers to pass-along advertising messages.

What is a browser?

It is a software that allows people to search electronically among many documents.

What is a digital communication server?

This is the equipment that delivers programs from their source to subscribers.

What is a search engine?

This is the tool used to local information in a computer database.

What is advertising?

It is any paid form of non-personal presentation by an identified sponsor, and it's how American consumers pay fro most of their media.

What is Agenda-Setting?

This refers to the flow of information from news organizations to their audiences and one news organization to another.

What is an advertising campaign?

This is a planned advertising effort that is coordinated for a specific time period.

What is an example of PR?

Getting a newspaper to write stories about a new toy.

What is convergence?

This is the process by which the various media industries intersect.

What is Crises Communication?

This refers to a timely PR response to a critical situation that could cause damage to a company's reputation.

What is ethnocentrism?

This is the attitude that some cultural and social values are superior.

What is Public Relations?

This involves creating understanding for or good will towards a company, a person, or a product.

What is signal or data compression?

This refers to a method of squeezing information into a tiny, electronic package.

What is the Communications Decency Act?

This outlawed certain Internet content, but was struck down by the US Supreme Court in 1997.

What is the Internet?

It is a combination of thousands of computer networks sending and receiving data worldwide.

What is the Magic Bullet Theory?

This says that audiences blindly accept one point of view from reporters.

What is the major difference between PR and advertising?

Advertising people are usually not involved in corporate policy decisions, while PR people usually are.

What is the meaning of the term "demographics?"

This refers to the analysis of audience characteristics, such as sex, age, and marital status.

What is the meaning of the term "multimedia?"

This refers to media that combines text, graphics, sound, and video.

What is the meaning of ubiquity?

This means that advertising is everywhere.

What is the National Advertising Review Board?

This is the industry's self-regulatory agency that attempts to protect consumers from misleading advertising.

What sparked the Golden Age of TV News, and when did it occur?

President John F. Kennedy's inauguration; in 1961

What type of burden do news consumers bear?

In the age of Internet, consumers bear an increased burden to seek reliable information.

What type of challenges do PR professionals face?

They face new challenges such as an expanding worldwide market and global communications, the internet, and changing demographic patterns.

What was the agency of government first to engage in the regulation of advertising to protect consumers early in the 20th century?

The Food and Drug Administration

What were the benefits of the news coverage of WWII?

It was an opportunity for radio to bring America closer to the action than they had every been.

What were the first publicity firms in the US hired to do?

They were hired to blunt public criticism of railroads and other industries.

Who is the nation's largest single employer of public information people?

The Federal Government

Who is the person most responsible for creating the World Wide Web?

Tim Berners-Lee

Who wrote stories during WWII that debunked the "glory" of war?

Ernie Pyle

Why do many firms use PR?

They use PR to get favorable media coverage of their products because it's cheaper to get a publicity release published than to purchase an ad.

Why is source confidentiality important?

It is important because keeping confidential sources confidential is essential to being able to cover controversial stories.

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