An organized whole. Emphasize our tendency to integrate piece of info into meaningful wholes.
The organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground).
Perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups.
Perceive objects in 3-D but images that reach retina are 2-D; Allows us to judge distance.
Lab device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.
Depth cues that depend on use of 2 eyes.
Binocular cue for perceiving depth: By comparing 2 images from the retinas in both eyes, brain computes distance. The greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.
Depth cues available to either eye alone.
Illusion of movement created when 2 or more adjacent lights blink on and off in a quick succession.
Perceiving objects as unchanging (consistent shapes, size, lightness, and color) even as illumination and retinal images change.
Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object.
In vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field.
Mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.
Human Factors Psychology
Branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use.
Extrasensory Perception (ESP)
The controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; like telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information.
Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations.
The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time
Signal Detection Theory
A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background noise
Below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time (Also called just noticeable difference or jnd.)
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
Conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret.
The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth.
the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
retinal receptor cells near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. They detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a blind spot because no receptor cells are located there
the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement
the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision
Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory
The theory that the retina contains three different color receptors (red, green, blue) which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color
the theory that opposing retinal processes enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red.
the sense or act of hearing
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for example, per second).
a tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency.
the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window.
a coiled, bony, fluid -filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.
in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated.
in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch.
conduction hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.
sensorineural hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness.
a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea.
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts.
the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance.
the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.
the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste.
the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis