emperor who saw abuse of powers in the Church & named 3 German popes in a row
layperson names pope (i.e. Henry III)
Henry III does lay investiture when?
Gregorian Reform/climax of reform movement
an emporer excommunicated for speaking out against the Church; tricks pope into lifting it
Henry IV excommunicated when?
no longer participate in sacramental life of the Church
Concordat of Worms
pope can now name leaders; does away with lay investiture
Concordat of Worms when?
Concordat of Worms who?
Callistus II and Henry III
Gregorian Reforms against?
lay investiture & corruption of religion by money
one of 3 German popes appointed by Henry III
Fourth Lateran Council when?
Fourth Lateran Council
discusses almost all aspeects of church life, including transubstantiation; proudest moment of Innocent III's life
th ehcange of bread & wine into the Body and Blood of Chirst at Mass
launches Crusades at Council of Clermont (1095)
appeals to Pope Urban II for help against Turks in E empire, leads to Crusades
form of govt in which all civil power is in the hands of the religious leaders
name we give to the body of laws of the Church
success of Gregorian reform leads to?
increase of power/reputation of Church & papacy, so more people look to the Church
only one to achieve real military success (short-lived); captures Jerusalem
2nd Crusade what?
2nd Crusade led by?
Bernard of Clairvaux
3rd Crusade led by?
Frederick Barbarossa and King Richard the Lion Hearted of England
3rd Crusade what?
4th Crusade what?
disaster & disgrace- turn against the friendly, Christian city of Constantinople
4th Crusade led by?
King Phillip & his wife
Crusades- good or bad?
bad; an embarrassment
High Middle Ages (time)
High Middle Ages=
Age of Renewal
4th Crusade called by?
Pope Innocent III
1st Crusade called by?
Pope Urban II
the cultural world that came into existence during the High Middle Ages
In Christendom period, _____one was Catholic and it influenced ____ aspect of their lives
fear of heresy leads to?
Inquisition is what?
an official Catholic court that was charged w/ examining and investigating those accused of heresy & punishing heretics w/ torture/death
Christendom is basically the ____ of Christianity (Catholisism)
false doctrines are known as....
who teaches false doctrines?
what was the inside threat the Church fought?
how did the Church fight against inside threats
How did the Church fight against outside threats
As a result of the Crusades, ___increased and people moved to cities/towns that the revival of ____ brought into being (same term 2x)
shift in population as trade increased led to a new social class called?
forms to help urban poor
comes from the Latin word for "brothers"
Latine word for "brothers"
gave up all his wealth/disgraced his father
order St Francis involuntarily founded/led
St. Dominic Salvio leads/founds this
Order of Preachers (O.P.)/ Dominicans
Order of Preachers
Dominic wants to fight against these things that mislead the faithful
how Dominic wanted to fight heresy
well-educated & holy preachers who explain Church teachings & live according to gospel
St. Dominic does
female counterpart of St. Francis?
St. Clare of Assisi
name of the order of nuns Clare put together
Why were some orders called mendicant
they were "begging" because they emphasize eprsonal poverty & finance their charitable activities from donations they seek from the faithful
names of mendicant orders
Carmelites, Augustinians, Franciscans, Dominicans
who brings the Church closer to the people?
what were some things mendicant orders introduce
rosary, stations of the cross, Christmas cre'che
Friars teach in universities & are known as ____ & _____
preachers and confessors
most lasting monuments of Christendom in the midieval period
churches adn cathedrals made in the Gothic Style
where Gothic Style began & when became popular to rest of world
Monks copy manuscripts to do what with them
pass them on to monastic schools, where future monks are trained
who copy manuscripts for cathedral schools (where futer diocesan clergy learns)
glory of Christendom that appears in 12th century
centers of higher education
subjects taught @ universities
law, medicine, philosophy, theology
thinkers from universities that contribute to our understanding of Catholicism
Anselm, Peter Abelard, Albert the Great, Bonaventure, Duns Scotus
Dominican friar/ thinker/writer who is best known of all the thinkers & is not afraid of knowledge
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
"truth cannot contradict truth" so reason can't be in conflict w/ faith
where Henry IV was excommunicated