A Remarkable Age of Renewal: 1046-1305

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Chapter Five Religion

Henry III

emperor who saw abuse of powers in the Church & named 3 German popes in a row

lay investiture

layperson names pope (i.e. Henry III)

Henry III does lay investiture when?

1046

Leo IX

starts reforms

Gregory VII

Gregorian Reform/climax of reform movement

Henry IV

an emporer excommunicated for speaking out against the Church; tricks pope into lifting it

Henry IV excommunicated when?

677

excommunicated

no longer participate in sacramental life of the Church

Concordat of Worms

pope can now name leaders; does away with lay investiture

Concordat of Worms when?

1122

Concordat of Worms who?

Callistus II and Henry III

Gregorian Reforms against?

lay investiture & corruption of religion by money

one of 3 German popes appointed by Henry III

Leo IX

Innocent III

theocracy (?)
controversial

Fourth Lateran Council when?

1215

Fourth Lateran Council

discusses almost all aspeects of church life, including transubstantiation; proudest moment of Innocent III's life

transubstantiation

th ehcange of bread & wine into the Body and Blood of Chirst at Mass

Urban II

launches Crusades at Council of Clermont (1095)

Alexius I

appeals to Pope Urban II for help against Turks in E empire, leads to Crusades

theocracy

form of govt in which all civil power is in the hands of the religious leaders

canon law

name we give to the body of laws of the Church

success of Gregorian reform leads to?

increase of power/reputation of Church & papacy, so more people look to the Church

1st Crusade

only one to achieve real military success (short-lived); captures Jerusalem

2nd Crusade what?

fails

2nd Crusade led by?

Bernard of Clairvaux

3rd Crusade led by?

Frederick Barbarossa and King Richard the Lion Hearted of England

3rd Crusade what?

fails

4th Crusade what?

disaster & disgrace- turn against the friendly, Christian city of Constantinople

4th Crusade led by?

King Phillip & his wife

Crusades=

"Holy" Wars

Crusades- good or bad?

bad; an embarrassment

High Middle Ages (time)

1046-1305

High Middle Ages=

Age of Renewal

4th Crusade called by?

Pope Innocent III

1st Crusade called by?

Pope Urban II

Christendom

the cultural world that came into existence during the High Middle Ages

In Christendom period, _____one was Catholic and it influenced ____ aspect of their lives

every; every

fear of heresy leads to?

Inquisition

Inquisition is what?

an official Catholic court that was charged w/ examining and investigating those accused of heresy & punishing heretics w/ torture/death

Christendom is basically the ____ of Christianity (Catholisism)

culture

false doctrines are known as....

heresy

who teaches false doctrines?

heretics

what was the inside threat the Church fought?

heresy/opposition

how did the Church fight against inside threats

Inquisition

How did the Church fight against outside threats

Crusades

As a result of the Crusades, ___increased and people moved to cities/towns that the revival of ____ brought into being (same term 2x)

trade

shift in population as trade increased led to a new social class called?

urbam poor

forms to help urban poor

friars

comes from the Latin word for "brothers"

Friar

Latine word for "brothers"

fater/fratis

gave up all his wealth/disgraced his father

St. Francis

order St Francis involuntarily founded/led

Franciscans

St. Dominic Salvio leads/founds this

Order of Preachers (O.P.)/ Dominicans

spreads rosary

Order of Preachers

Spanish

St. Dominic

Italian

Francis
Clare

Dominic wants to fight against these things that mislead the faithful

heresy

how Dominic wanted to fight heresy

well-educated & holy preachers who explain Church teachings & live according to gospel

admires Francis

St. Dominic does

female counterpart of St. Francis?

St. Clare of Assisi

name of the order of nuns Clare put together

Poor Clares

Why were some orders called mendicant

they were "begging" because they emphasize eprsonal poverty & finance their charitable activities from donations they seek from the faithful

names of mendicant orders

Carmelites, Augustinians, Franciscans, Dominicans

who brings the Church closer to the people?

mendicant orders

what were some things mendicant orders introduce

rosary, stations of the cross, Christmas cre'che

Friars teach in universities & are known as ____ & _____

preachers and confessors

most lasting monuments of Christendom in the midieval period

churches adn cathedrals made in the Gothic Style

where Gothic Style began & when became popular to rest of world

France, 1150

Monks copy manuscripts to do what with them

pass them on to monastic schools, where future monks are trained

who copy manuscripts for cathedral schools (where futer diocesan clergy learns)

bishops

glory of Christendom that appears in 12th century

universities

centers of higher education

universities are

subjects taught @ universities

law, medicine, philosophy, theology

thinkers from universities that contribute to our understanding of Catholicism

Anselm, Peter Abelard, Albert the Great, Bonaventure, Duns Scotus

Dominican friar/ thinker/writer who is best known of all the thinkers & is not afraid of knowledge

Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)

"truth cannot contradict truth" so reason can't be in conflict w/ faith

Thomas Aquinas

where Henry IV was excommunicated

Canosa

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