AP Euro Chapter 13

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Unit 5: State Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

political absolutism

Any form of government in which the ruler has nearly complete power, unrestrained by law or other governing bodies. a term applied to strong centralized continental monarchies that attempted to make royal power dominant over aristocracies and other regional authorities

parliamentary monarchy

the form of limited or constitutional monarchy set up in Britain after the Glorious Revolution in 1689 in which the monarch was subject to the law and ruled by the consent of parliament

Divine rights of kings

the theory that monarchs are appointed by and unanswerable only to God

James I

the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1925 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625. son of Mary Queen of Scots who succeeded Elizabeth I; alienated Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings (1566-1625)

puritans

english protestants who sought to "purify" the church of England of any vestiges of Catholicism

Massachusetts Bay Colony

1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.

Charles I

(1625-1649) clashed with parliamentary since the 1628 petition complaining about the King's behaviour. Despite these complaints he continued as King. Then in 1629, he dissolved parliament indefinitely. In the 1640s he was forced to call Parliament back as he needed money but, unhappy with what was happening, the result was civil war. In 1649, when the Civil War ended, he was put on trial to account for his actions. He was found guilty of breaking a 'contract and a bargain made between the king and his people'. He was executed by Oliver Cromwell for his crimes.

Oliver Cromwell

English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.

Cavaliers

In the English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles II. Their opponents were the Roundheads, loyal to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell.

Roundheads

A group consisting of puritans, country land owners, and town based manufacturers. fought against the Cavaliers during the English civil war

Charles II

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism

Declaration of Indulgence

declaration issued by Charles in 1672 that suspended all laws against Roman Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants

Titus Oates

a notorious liar who swore before a magistrate that Charles's Catholic wife, through her physician, was plotting with Jesuits and Irishmen to kill the King so James could assume the throne. Parliament believed his accusation and caused hysteria.

James II

when he became king, he immediately demanded the repeal of the Test Act and proceeded to appoint Catholics to high positions in both his court and his army. Issued another Declaration of Indulgence suspending all religious tests and permitting free worship

Glorious Revolution

the largely peaceful replacement of James II by William and Mary as English monarchs in 1688, it marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy in Britain

Mary and William of Orange

Mary was the daughter of King James II and she married William of Orange. They replaced James II in the parliament, which was known as the Glorious Revolution. William and Mary soon later dissolved the Dominion of New England and reestablished the colonies that James had destroyed.

The English Bill of Rights

was made during the glorious revolution under William and Mary, limiting the power of the monarchy and guaranteed the civil liberties of the English privileged classes. monarchs would be ruled by consent of parliament and would called into session every three years. prohibited Roman Catholics from occupying the English throne.

The Toleration Act

permitted worship by all Protestants and outlawed only Roman Catholics and those who denied the Christian Doctrine of the Trinity. it did NOT extend full political rights to persons outside the Church of England

John Locke

presented an extended argument for a government that must necessarily be both responsible for and responsive to the concerns of the governed. portrayed the natural human state as one of perfect freedom and equality in which everyone enjoyed, in an unregulated fashion, the natural rights of life, liberty and poverty.

George I

the Elector of Hanover who became King of Great Britain since England and Scotland had been combined in the Act of Union in 1707.

Sir Robert Walpole

1676-1745, took over the helm of government based on royal support, his ability to handle the House of Commons, and his control of government patronage. maintained peace abroad and promoted the status quo at home.

Louis XIV

king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715) said "l'etat, c'est moi" (i am the state) "the sun god"

Fronde

a series of rebellions against royal authority in France between 1649 and 1652

Parlements

French regional courts dominated by hereditary nobility. the most important was the Parlement of Paris, which claimed the right to register royal decrees before they become law

Versailles

Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.

Bishop Bossuet

French bishop, theologian, renowned pupit orator, and court preacher. advocate of the theory of political absolutism. One of the most brillian orators of all time and a masterful French stylist. His best works known to English speakers are three orations delivered at funerals. Also an important courtier and politician at the court of Louis XIV.

Jansenism

a 17th century movement within the Catholic Church that taught that human beings were so corrupted by original sin that they could do nothing good nor secure their own salvation without divine grace. (it was opposed to the Jesuits)

Unigenitus

issued by Pope Clement XI in 1713 which again extensively condemned Jansenist teaching

League of Augsburg

defensive pact between England, Spain, Sweden, United Providences, and Habsburgs to prevent Louis XIV from expansion and domination

Louis XV

succeeded his grandfather, Louis XIV, when he was 5. France suffered major defeats in Europe and around the world and lost most of its North American empire during his reign. he was an ineffective ruler.

John Law

1671-1729, a Scottish mathematician and fellow gambler. believed an increase in the paper-money-supply would stimulate France's economic recovery. established a bank in Paris that issued paper money, organized a monopoly called the Mississippi Company on trading privileges with the French Colony of Louisiana in North America

Sejm

the legislative assembly of the Polish nobility

Pragmatic Sanction

the legal basis sanctioned by the Emperor Charles VI for the Habsburg succession through his daughter Maria Theresa

Frederick William

the Elector of Brandenburg who rebuilt his domain after its destruction during the Thirty Years' War (1620-1688), placed very strong emphasis on the army

Junkers

the noble landlords of Persia

Ivan IV

also knows as The Terrible. went through a personality change that led him to move from a program of sensible reform law, government, and the army toward violent personal tyranny

Peter the Great

czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government. he extended his territories in the Baltic and founded St. Petersburg

Table of Ranks

an official hierarchy established by Peter the Great in imperial Russia that equated a person's social position and privileges with his rank in the state bureaucracy or army

Ottoman Empire

the imperial Turkish state centered in Constantinople that ruled large parts of the Balkans, North Africa, and the Middle East until 1918

Millets

administrative units of the Ottoman Empire that were not geographic but consisted of ethnic or religious minorities to whom particular laws and regulations applied.

Ulama

Islamic scholars that not only dominated Ottoman religious institutions but also schools and courts of law. urged the sultans to confirm to traditional life even as the empire confronted a rapidly changing and modernizing Europe.

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